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10

The relevant bit of Daniel 10:3 reads as follows: ... וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי ... ... but, behold, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me ... OP has two intertwining interests: (1) the primary question is about the meaning here of "one" in Hebrew; but secondarily (2) how does this relate to the ...


10

History The Hebrew and Greek terms for 'messenger' do have this natural overlap, and can cause contention in translation. The Latin Vulgate was the first translation which tried to separate the word into divine and human, by transliterating the Greek term αγγελος to create the Latin angelus for divine messengers, and 'translating' it properly for human ...


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Textual Usage The word 'archangel' (lemma: ἀρχάγγελος) appears twice in the New Testament, at least once in the LXX translation of the book of Enoch (which mentions numerous angels and their duties and authority - I would read it here or here if this topic interests you), and also in a highly disputed verse in 2 Esdras. It should be noted that after the ...


9

Because Jacob encountered God (YHWH) that Night The Meaning of Face to Face The phrase "face to face" in the Hebrew (פָּנִ֣ים אֶל־פָּנִ֔ים) uses the plural form of the word פָּנֶה (paneh; "face").1 However, it would not necessarily be proper to translate it then "faces to faces," because the word is always found in the plural form in Hebrew.2 This is ...


8

There are three common views on the identity of the 'sons of God' marrying the 'daughters of men' in Genesis 6.1-4: Descendants of Seth married descendants of Cain Nobles married commoners Angels married human women 1. Descendants of Seth married descendants of Cain This view was popularized by Augustine (City of God, chapter 23), and the argument ...


7

In Genesis 3:24, it is a Cherubim - an angel of the Lord who guards the Garden of Eden. They are depicted in the tabernacle and on the ark of the covenant, guarding the Throne of God. In all places, they are associated with angelic beings and are part of the host of heaven. The difficulty in giving a verse calling a cherubim an angel is that angelos is a ...


7

"Principalities" and "powers" are separated in the original language. The structure is similar to the ESV rather than the KJV. I will, therefore, treat them separately. Principalities The underlying word here can carry a range of meanings. In Romans 13:3, for instance, it refers to a human magistrate. In Ephesians 6:12 it is instead contrasted with "flesh ...


7

In Hebrew אחד is a cardinal number. The names of the days of the week are formed from cardinal numbers, so what we call “Sunday” is “day one” in Hebrew, and thus also in the Greek and Latin Bibles, but the English translators render this as “the first day”, only because this sounds more natural in English. But אחד does not actually ever mean “first”. The ...


6

In Greek thought, there was even a specific term for showing hospitality to a guest: xenia (ξενία). If a host harmed his guest, Zeus would avenge them. This went both ways, too. In Homer's epic The Odyssey, book 21, we are told the major sin of the suitors is that they abused hospitality. In the Assyrian Words of Ahiqar, Ahiqar provides hospitality to a man ...


6

The angels mentioned earlier in 2 Peter are evil1 Angels are only explicitly mentioned twice in 2 Peter. The other mention is near the start of the same logical section in verse 4: 4For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to chains of gloomy darkness to be kept until the judgment; ESV If these angels ...


5

What follows is a reading of the Sodom narrative based on the commentary of Nachmanides which is drastically different from the way this story is commonly understood. No other reading of this story makes sense to me. Progression of events: The people of Sodom gather outside Lot's house and they make a request. The original Hebrew is highly ambiguous here: ...


5

This prophecy concerns the problems encountered in rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem. It is closely connected with the story in Ezra 4. The wicked woman in the "eiphah" measure (bushel or barrel) represents one or more of the enemies of Israel, primarily the Samaritans and the Edomites, who harassed the builders after being excluded from the rebuilding ...


5

In this section of 2 Peter, sinful angels are being both compared and contrasted with 'false teachers', who are really the subject of the passage. The NET Bible notes that: Δόξας (doxas) almost certainly refers to angelic beings rather than mere human authorities, though it is difficult to tell whether good or bad angels are in view. Verse 11 seems to ...


5

A Contrary Argument: Seeing the Reference as to Good Angels Jack Douglas laid out some good points to argue for 1 Pet 2:11 to be evil angels. However, I do find some holes and things left unconsidered that for me seem to point to a contrary conclusion. The following is loosely based off both his original set of arguments offered, as well as some of his ...


5

The first part of the term "Bene Ha'elohim" simply means sons of. Therefore, the question really revolves around what "elohim" refers to here. There are a couple of things that elohim can refer to. In the Bible, it is typically used to refer to Yahewh (god,) however elohim can also refer to gods; the mighty, great or powerful (so, lords or aristocracy); or ...


5

In Exo. 12:12-13, it is written, 12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and I will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast, and I will execute judgment against all the gods of Egypt. I am Yahveh. 13 And the blood shall be your sign upon the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, then I will [...


4

Not Personalities, but God's Glorious Gifts Of δόξας (doxas) v.10 The Greek of 2 Pet 2:10 μάλιστα δὲ τοὺς ὀπίσω σαρκὸς ἐν ἐπιθυμίᾳ μιασμοῦ πορευομένους, καὶ κυριότητος καταφρονοῦντας. Τολμηταί, αὐθάδεις, δόξας οὐ τρέμουσιν βλασφημοῦντες The part in question is the second clause where the accusative noun δόξας is the direct object of what is being ...


4

Divine agency In many Ancient Near Eastern cultures, there was a political concept we call 'agency'. In this, the delegate or ambassador of a god simply spoke in the first person on that god's behalf. The use of agency is only touched on rarely in the broader historical narrative of Genesis–2 Kings, where we sometimes find the Messenger of YHWH speaking ...


4

I tend to just take ἄγγελος as simply messenger in this context. As the word is around ½ of the time simply meaning messenger and the other ½ of the time meaning an angel (i.e. messenger from God) we must choose from the context. Imagine we are praying for Peter and an excited woman told us Peter was at the door. She claims she 'heard' Peter through the ...


4

In The Resurrection of the Son of God, N. T. Wright points out that continued existence after death was a belief that divided the Sadducees and the Pharisees: Now when Paul perceived that one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, “Brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. It is with respect to the hope and the ...


4

The same word in Hebrew וְנֵדְעָ֖ה ("wə·nê·ḏə·‘āh") is a derivative of יָדַע (yada) "To Know", (BDB) but the Context tells us that "To Know" means to have sexual intercourse-with or without permission. In Gen. 4:1, Adam "yada" his wife, and she conceived. You don't get 'conception' by cognitive knowledge-something else had to happen. In Jdgs 19:22-26, we ...


4

Hard Question, Soldarnal Peter O'Brien says of this verse in his Colossians commentary: This verse has been described as one of the most contested passages in the NT, presenting great difficulties in language and content. And Douglas Moo, in his: This verse furnishes the most important evidence about the false teaching, but it is also arguably the ...


3

From a Christian perspective prophets after the return from the Babylonian exile are often citing visions about the days of Messiah. However there is no evidence that ancient rabbinic sources understood Zechariah 5 as referring to the end times. Therefore, it seems purely a Christian view that equates this chapter to those times. Under that view, the woman ...


3

I actually have no intellectual or difficulties of conscience with this story. It just seems good and right to me as it is told. In fact I have always found it very comforting and true to life. Some have difficulty thinking Lot (a righteous man according to 2 Peter 2:7) sinned in this instance, so they come up with ideas on how even this action could be ...


3

I take it as being they thought Peter's guardian angel had assumed his appearance to talk to them. We should note that this interpretation does not mean the Bible is teaching that guardian angels can assume their wards appearance but that these believing Jews in the first century believed such to be true. The understanding of Peter's aggelos being his ...


3

2 Pet 2 and Jude are very similar, both in structure, language, and themes. These two are parallel passages (cf. e.g. this site): Jude 8-9: Yet in like manner these people also, relying on their dreams, defile the flesh, reject authority, and blaspheme the glorious ones. But when the archangel Michael, contending with the devil, was disputing about the ...


3

The new testament ἄγγελος can mean messenger. For example, in Revelation Jesus says to the angel of the church of xxx write. This can mean either write this to the pastor or a guardian angel over the church. So here when it says The Law was instituted through the work of angels, could it possible mean the work of prophets? Clearly it was administered ...


3

The first thing we need to understand is that the Hebrew word מַלְאָךְ (mal'akh) literally means "messenger." It can refer to human messengers (Hag. 1:13) as well as spiritual messengers (Gen. 22:11; the latter is what we commonly refer to as "angels"). A related noun מַלְאָכוּת (mal'akhut) derived from the same triliteral root מל"ך means "message" (Hag. 1:...


3

The issue of interpreting the Revelation is very difficult. A book like Proverbs is relatively straight forward; most readers agree on the genre, how it was intended to be read, and how it was intended to be applied. The same can't be said for the Revelation, because interpretations and applications have varied so radically over the centuries, let alone just ...


3

Just because the text identifies the angels doesn't mean that the human characters had that knowledge, or at least not initially. The Biblical instances which would be commonly understood to be times when people were unaware they were entertaining angels are: Abraham in Genesis 18 Lot in Genesis 19 Gideon in Judges 6 Samson's parents in Judges 13



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