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Nicodemus Should Have Known from the Old Testament That the Old Testament is the source of the doctrine is confirmed by Christ Himself, for Nicodemus was supposed to have known these things. A slightly larger context helps see this: Jn 3:3-10 (NKJV) 3 Jesus answered and said to him, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again [or "born ...


6

Contemporary Jewish Apocalypses 2 Esdras is a Jewish apocalypse with later Christian additions. One chapter, written by the original Jewish author, has the following: In the thirtieth year after the destruction of the city, I was in Babylon — I, Salathiel, who am also called Ezra. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my ...


5

There are two key points to pick up on in 1 Peter 3.19-20, bold here: ἐν ᾧ καὶ τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν πορευθεὶς ἐκήρυξεν ἀπειθήσασίν ποτε, ὅτε ἀπεξεδέχετο ἡ τοῦ θεοῦ μακροθυμία ἐν ἡμέραις Νῶε κατασκευαζομένης κιβωτοῦ εἰς ἣν ὀλίγοι, τοῦτ’ ἔστιν ὀκτὼ ψυχαί, διεσώθησαν δι’ ὕδατος (NA28) The author is talking about: spirits (πνεύμασιν) who disobeyed ...


5

The origin of the Christian teaching of the ‘new birth’ is at most partly an outworking of the Hebrew concept of a resurrection, it uses words in Greek that can barely be traced in other literature and on the whole is therefore entirely something new. The Greek word used in 1 Peter 1:23 (αναγεγεννημενοι) is actually quite hard to find in any other Greek ...


4

My Hebrew is basic, but I do read Greek. Sarah refers to Abraham as her kurios in Genesis 18:12 in the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament.) Yet she does not address him directly with that word in her commentary of 1 Peter, Karen Jobes (2005:205) notes that "This noun [kurios] is the only lexical connection between the story of Sarah and Peter’s claim.” ...


4

The Talmud uses a similar phrase (in Hebrew) regarding the conversion of proselytes to Judaism. The rabbis stipulated that a convert to Judaism had to perform three acts during the conversion process: offering a sacrifice, circumcision, and immersion ("baptism").1 In the Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nashim, Tractate Yevamot, Folio 48b, Gemara English | Hebrew, ...


3

The following text was originally part of my question. But it was pointed out that I really was answering my own question. What I really want is that this answer is to be supplemented with other views that from an academic point of view argue that this might be referring to something else than Rome. Many scholars take this as referring to Rome for a good ...


3

Household codes were common in Greco-Roman culture, going back to at least Artistotle in his book Politics. In these Greco-Roman household codes, the father has an effectively absolute rule over his household (which includes his wife, children, and slaves), and in comparison to the household codes from the New Testament, they are definitely much harsher in ...


3

The Greek word is ὀλίγαι, the nominative case, plural number, feminine gender declension of the adjective ὀλίγος. (It is declined in the feminine gender because it modifies the noun ψυχαί which is naturally declined in the feminine gender.) It is translated as "few" 14 times in the King James Version. BDAG (p. 703) defines it as, ὀλίγος, η, ον ...


2

The question as I understand it is,"Are pneuma the same as aggelos"? To answer that question, one must understand the triparte being that man is:(1 Thess. 5:23) And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. We 'live' in a body-our ...


2

The Hebrew Bible speaks of "new birthing" involving water, which then later carries into the Christian New Testament. Specifically, water in the Hebrew Bible removes the contamination of death, and thus emerges "new life." To begin, the simple Hebrew verb חָטָא means to sin, but in the intensive forms of the verb (Piel, Pual, and Hithpael) the meaning ...


2

The verse appears as follows in the Greek New Testament. 1 Peter 4:6 (GNT) 6 εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ νεκροῖς εὐηγγελίσθη ἵνα κριθῶσι μὲν κατὰ ἀνθρώπους σαρκὶ ζῶσι δὲ κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι. [NOTE: Arland et al. (2012) note no variants of this verse extant.] There are three verbs in this verse: εὐαγγελίζω = Aorist Passive Indicative (3 person singular) = "the ...


1

Jewish commentaries don't dwell on her use of the word אדוני in that verse because it is clear from the context that she is referring to her husband. In fact, I searched all of my books and found no comment at all on the use of the word there. Everyone is much more interested in the rest of the sentence, where she laughs at the possibility of her and ...


1

In the Christian New Testament, "Babylon" is metonymy for Gentile world power. According to the Hebrew Bible, Babylon was the first Gentile world power to enter the stage of world history when the visible theocratic kingdom on earth ended. That is, the Shekinah Glory, which had resided in the temple up until that point of time, had been the locus of the ...


1

The 1611 KJV has "for us" in the margin, indicating a manuscript variant. In such cases the choice relates to context. A likely contextual reason "you" was preferred is that Peter is speaking to Gentiles undergoing persecution for their faith, as noted in verses 6-7. Likely he would want to assure them that the promise of an incorruptable inheritance in ...



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