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8

They are the pillars of the early church, not only the old ones – although they are from the group of the old and experienced.1 According to verse 2a they shall "be shepherds of God's flock". The technical use of the word πρεσβυτέροι for the heads of a community was usual for OT-Jewish region and "understandable" for the hellenistic environment.2 1: ...


8

Nicodemus Should Have Known from the Old Testament That the Old Testament is the source of the doctrine is confirmed by Christ Himself, for Nicodemus was supposed to have known these things. A slightly larger context helps see this: Jn 3:3-10 (NKJV) 3 Jesus answered and said to him, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again [or "born ...


6

Contemporary Jewish Apocalypses 2 Esdras is a Jewish apocalypse with later Christian additions. One chapter, written by the original Jewish author, has the following: In the thirtieth year after the destruction of the city, I was in Babylon — I, Salathiel, who am also called Ezra. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my ...


5

There are two key points to pick up on in 1 Peter 3.19-20, bold here: ἐν ᾧ καὶ τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν πορευθεὶς ἐκήρυξεν ἀπειθήσασίν ποτε, ὅτε ἀπεξεδέχετο ἡ τοῦ θεοῦ μακροθυμία ἐν ἡμέραις Νῶε κατασκευαζομένης κιβωτοῦ εἰς ἣν ὀλίγοι, τοῦτ’ ἔστιν ὀκτὼ ψυχαί, διεσώθησαν δι’ ὕδατος (NA28) The author is talking about: spirits (πνεύμασιν) who disobeyed ...


5

Wayne Grudem wrote a rather thorough article on this subject for the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, in 1991. The article can be found online: He Did Not Descend Into Hell: A Plea for Following Scripture Instead of the Apostles' Creed I believe the article is also reproduced as an appendix to his Systematic Theology. The article discusses ...


5

Yes, that is one interpretation of this text. Another interpretation is that he descended into a temporary holding place for the dead, which was also paradise. This interpretation is a mix of the verse you site above along with this one: Luke 23:43 (KJV) And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in paradise. This ...


5

The origin of the Christian teaching of the ‘new birth’ is at most partly an outworking of the Hebrew concept of a resurrection, it uses words in Greek that can barely be traced in other literature and on the whole is therefore entirely something new. The Greek word used in 1 Peter 1:23 (αναγεγεννημενοι) is actually quite hard to find in any other Greek ...


4

The Talmud uses a similar phrase (in Hebrew) regarding the conversion of proselytes to Judaism. The rabbis stipulated that a convert to Judaism had to perform three acts during the conversion process: offering a sacrifice, circumcision, and immersion ("baptism").1 In the Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nashim, Tractate Yevamot, Folio 48b, Gemara English | Hebrew, ...


4

I am drawing on some portions of notes that I had to present in a class. As such, there are sentence fragments and other oddities in it that I've yet to edit out. There's a lot more information than is required in order to answer your questions, but setting the context is always a default that I have. Ultimately, I don't really believe that there is any ...


3

The following text was originally part of my question. But it was pointed out that I really was answering my own question. What I really want is that this answer is to be supplemented with other views that from an academic point of view argue that this might be referring to something else than Rome. Many scholars take this as referring to Rome for a good ...


3

Household codes were common in Greco-Roman culture, going back to at least Artistotle in his book Politics. In these Greco-Roman household codes, the father has an effectively absolute rule over his household (which includes his wife, children, and slaves), and in comparison to the household codes from the New Testament, they are definitely much harsher in ...


3

Most every critical text I have (including the NA27, the SBL GNT, UBS4, Westcott/Hort, and the Robinson/Pierpont Byzantine GNT which usually follows the TR) all say εἰς ὑμᾶς, which would support the KJV translation. Metzger and other textual commentators that I have available say nothing about a variant reading. Stephen's 1550 TR reads εἰς ἡμᾶς, as does ...


3

My Hebrew is basic, but I do read Greek. Sarah refers to Abraham as her kurios in Genesis 18:12 in the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament.) Yet she does not address him directly with that word in her commentary of 1 Peter, Karen Jobes (2005:205) notes that "This noun [kurios] is the only lexical connection between the story of Sarah and Peter’s claim.” ...


3

The Greek word is ὀλίγαι, the nominative case, plural number, feminine gender declension of the adjective ὀλίγος. (It is declined in the feminine gender because it modifies the noun ψυχαί which is naturally declined in the feminine gender.) It is translated as "few" 14 times in the King James Version. BDAG (p. 703) defines it as, ὀλίγος, η, ον ...


2

The question as I understand it is,"Are pneuma the same as aggelos"? To answer that question, one must understand the triparte being that man is:(1 Thess. 5:23) And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. We 'live' in a body-our ...


2

The Hebrew Bible speaks of "new birthing" involving water, which then later carries into the Christian New Testament. Specifically, water in the Hebrew Bible removes the contamination of death, and thus emerges "new life." To begin, the simple Hebrew verb חָטָא means to sin, but in the intensive forms of the verb (Piel, Pual, and Hithpael) the meaning ...


2

The verse appears as follows in the Greek New Testament. 1 Peter 4:6 (GNT) 6 εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ νεκροῖς εὐηγγελίσθη ἵνα κριθῶσι μὲν κατὰ ἀνθρώπους σαρκὶ ζῶσι δὲ κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι. [NOTE: Arland et al. (2012) note no variants of this verse extant.] There are three verbs in this verse: εὐαγγελίζω = Aorist Passive Indicative (3 person singular) = "the ...


2

Another answer gives a good analysis of the Greek in his answer, but I find his conclusion to be quite surprising on the basis of what he said. Life in the New Testament (and in a more hidden way, in the old) overwhelmingly speaks of eternal life; that is, the eternal communion with God into which we enter by grace through Jesus Christ. Where do I even ...


2

The phrase "συγκληρονόμοις χάριτος ζωῆς" (fellow heirs of [the] grace of life) in this passage is very interesting. The apostle Paul elsewhere uses συγκληρονόμος to indicate that children of God are "fellow heirs" with Christ (Romans 8:17), so it is certainly possible that eternal life is the meaning here. But I'm leaning towards marriage in this passage. ...


2

The assumption in the question is that the Ephesians text does not refer to thought and attitude. For sake of this post, I do not believe that this assumption is correct and is perhaps birthed from to great a focus on the allegory of the text and not enough on the substance. The "armor of God" allegory is used to extend the idea of a battle, though not one ...


2

John 1:12 ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ But as many as received him, to those who believe in his name, he gave them power to become sons of God, Thayer1 describes the sense of ἐξουσίαν (exousian) in this verse as "physical and mental power; the ability or strength with which one ...


2

The best way to understand what Peter is doing in 1 Peter 4:6 is to study 1 Peter 4:6 in context. Let's start by trying to get the gist of what Peter was attempting to communicate in the passage. 1. Review the author's flow of thought The flow of thought in the context containing this verse (4:1-7) is as follows: Just as Christ suffered death in His ...


1

In the Christian New Testament, "Babylon" is metonymy for Gentile world power. According to the Hebrew Bible, Babylon was the first Gentile world power to enter the stage of world history when the visible theocratic kingdom on earth ended. That is, the Shekinah Glory, which had resided in the temple up until that point of time, had been the locus of the ...


1

The 1611 KJV has "for us" in the margin, indicating a manuscript variant. In such cases the choice relates to context. A likely contextual reason "you" was preferred is that Peter is speaking to Gentiles undergoing persecution for their faith, as noted in verses 6-7. Likely he would want to assure them that the promise of an incorruptable inheritance in ...


1

Regarding the translation of these words in John 20 and 1Peter 3: Neither may nor might is intended or given in the Greek. The Apostles are trusting, not writing laissez-faire. RE: John 20:31 The writing down (from the author´s perspective) just had happened, whereas our (the readers´) trusting and therefore our living was (and is) yet to come. The simple ...


1

The particular pairings of the three mentioned texts find parallels in Aristotle where he writes, "Now we should begin by examining everything in its fewest possible elements; and the first and fewest possible parts of a family are master and slave, husband and wife, father and children." (Politics I.3) However, these pairings lack any of the ethical ...


1

There is a running contrast in the NT between the natural/'deadness' of the old (OT) economy, and the spiritual/'living' nature of the new (NT) Christian economy. This can be seen in such passages as 2 Cor. 3:2,3 ("tablets of stone" vs. "tablets of human hearts" [NASB]); in Jesus' encounter with the woman at the well in John 4 (i.e, natural vs "living" ...


1

The living temple imagery is taken from Isaiah 8:14, 28:16, Psalm 118:22 and is used in both 1 Peter Chapter 2 and Ephesians Chapter 2. Although the Gentile audience of Ephesians might not be acutely aware of the ‘unclean’ stones defiled by Gentiles in the reference you provide to the Maccabean revolt, I do think the Jewish mind reading 1 Peter would ...



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