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8

They are the pillars of the early church, not only the old ones – although they are from the group of the old and experienced.1 According to verse 2a they shall "be shepherds of God's flock". The technical use of the word πρεσβυτέροι for the heads of a community was usual for OT-Jewish region and "understandable" for the hellenistic environment.2 1: ...


8

Nicodemus Should Have Known from the Old Testament That the Old Testament is the source of the doctrine is confirmed by Christ Himself, for Nicodemus was supposed to have known these things. A slightly larger context helps see this: Jn 3:3-10 (NKJV) 3 Jesus answered and said to him, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again [or "born ...


7

Contemporary Jewish Apocalypses 2 Esdras is a Jewish apocalypse with later Christian additions. One chapter, written by the original Jewish author, has the following: In the thirtieth year after the destruction of the city, I was in Babylon — I, Salathiel, who am also called Ezra. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my ...


7

The Passage in Question 1 Peter 3.18-20, NRSV For Christ also suffered for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, in order to bring you to God. He was put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit, in which also he went and made a proclamation to the spirits in prison, who in former times did not obey, when God waited patiently ...


5

The origin of the Christian teaching of the ‘new birth’ is at most partly an outworking of the Hebrew concept of a resurrection, it uses words in Greek that can barely be traced in other literature and on the whole is therefore entirely something new. The Greek word used in 1 Peter 1:23 (αναγεγεννημενοι) is actually quite hard to find in any other Greek ...


5

I am drawing on some portions of notes that I had to present in a class. As such, there are sentence fragments and other oddities in it that I've yet to edit out. There's a lot more information than is required in order to answer your questions, but setting the context is always a default that I have. Ultimately, I don't really believe that there is any ...


5

Wayne Grudem wrote a rather thorough article on this subject for the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, in 1991. The article can be found online: He Did Not Descend Into Hell: A Plea for Following Scripture Instead of the Apostles' Creed I believe the article is also reproduced as an appendix to his Systematic Theology. The article discusses ...


5

Yes, that is one interpretation of this text. Another interpretation is that he descended into a temporary holding place for the dead, which was also paradise. This interpretation is a mix of the verse you site above along with this one: Luke 23:43 (KJV) And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in paradise. This ...


4

The Talmud uses a similar phrase (in Hebrew) regarding the conversion of proselytes to Judaism. The rabbis stipulated that a convert to Judaism had to perform three acts during the conversion process: offering a sacrifice, circumcision, and immersion ("baptism").1 In the Babylonian Talmud, Seder Nashim, Tractate Yevamot, Folio 48b, Gemara English | Hebrew, ...


4

My Hebrew is basic, but I do read Greek. Sarah refers to Abraham as her kurios in Genesis 18:12 in the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament.) Yet she does not address him directly with that word in her commentary of 1 Peter, Karen Jobes (2005:205) notes that "This noun [kurios] is the only lexical connection between the story of Sarah and Peter’s claim.” ...


4

Marriage isn't 50-50. It's both parties giving 100%. Dr. Emerson Eggerichs addresses the differences in the commands extensively in his book Love and Respect and on his website, most recently in a September 4 blogpost. This verse doesn't mean that women don't have to love and men don't have to be subject to their wives. Paul was giving instructions about ...


3

The question as I understand it is,"Are pneuma the same as aggelos"? To answer that question, one must understand the triparte being that man is:(1 Thess. 5:23) And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. We 'live' in a body-our ...


3

Most every critical text I have (including the NA27, the SBL GNT, UBS4, Westcott/Hort, and the Robinson/Pierpont Byzantine GNT which usually follows the TR) all say εἰς ὑμᾶς, which would support the KJV translation. Metzger and other textual commentators that I have available say nothing about a variant reading. Stephen's 1550 TR reads εἰς ἡμᾶς, as does ...


3

The following text was originally part of my question. But it was pointed out that I really was answering my own question. What I really want is that this answer is to be supplemented with other views that from an academic point of view argue that this might be referring to something else than Rome. Many scholars take this as referring to Rome for a good ...


3

Household codes were common in Greco-Roman culture, going back to at least Artistotle in his book Politics. In these Greco-Roman household codes, the father has an effectively absolute rule over his household (which includes his wife, children, and slaves), and in comparison to the household codes from the New Testament, they are definitely much harsher in ...


3

Another perspective on this issue: why should Paul have counselled "love" in each of the three cases of domestic relationship in Colossians 3:18-20 (wives to husbands, husbands to wives, children to parents)? The question assumes that this disposition -- certainly a norm in modern western nuclear families -- is also the default social configuration in ...


3

To answer the question I think we need to need to consider the whole verse and its context. Our English translations begin with “therefore” (οὖν), which suggests that Peter is drawing a conclusion from the previous verses (vv.18–22), where Peter writes about Christ’s victory over hostile powers through his death and resurrection. The connection between the ...


3

1 Peter 3:3 ὧν ἔστω οὐχ ὁ ἔξωθεν ἐμπλοκῆς τριχῶν καὶ περιθέσεως χρυσίων ἢ ἐνδύσεως ἱματίων κόσμος (1Pe 3:3 BGT) A literal translation of the Greek would be “Let not your adornment be external—braiding the hair, and wearing gold jewelry, or putting on clothes.” Peter, however, is not forbidding the wearing of any clothes at all (as a literal reading ...


2

The assumption in the question is that the Ephesians text does not refer to thought and attitude. For sake of this post, I do not believe that this assumption is correct and is perhaps birthed from to great a focus on the allegory of the text and not enough on the substance. The "armor of God" allegory is used to extend the idea of a battle, though not one ...


2

Another answer gives a good analysis of the Greek in his answer, but I find his conclusion to be quite surprising on the basis of what he said. Life in the New Testament (and in a more hidden way, in the old) overwhelmingly speaks of eternal life; that is, the eternal communion with God into which we enter by grace through Jesus Christ. Where do I even ...


2

The phrase "συγκληρονόμοις χάριτος ζωῆς" (fellow heirs of [the] grace of life) in this passage is very interesting. The apostle Paul elsewhere uses συγκληρονόμος to indicate that children of God are "fellow heirs" with Christ (Romans 8:17), so it is certainly possible that eternal life is the meaning here. But I'm leaning towards marriage in this passage. ...


2

When Jesus died on the cross, his body physically expired. His heart stopped beating and he physically died. His humanity did not go into heaven--that is, not until three days later. So what happened after his death is that his body went into the grave, and his immaterial being went to the place where the righteous had then rested -- i.e., the place of rest ...


2

John 1:12 ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ But as many as received him, to those who believe in his name, he gave them power to become sons of God, Thayer1 describes the sense of ἐξουσίαν (exousian) in this verse as "physical and mental power; the ability or strength with which one ...


2

The Hebrew Bible speaks of "new birthing" involving water, which then later carries into the Christian New Testament. Specifically, water in the Hebrew Bible removes the contamination of death, and thus emerges "new life." To begin, the simple Hebrew verb חָטָא means to sin, but in the intensive forms of the verb (Piel, Pual, and Hithpael) the meaning ...


2

The verse appears as follows in the Greek New Testament. 1 Peter 4:6 (GNT) 6 εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ νεκροῖς εὐηγγελίσθη ἵνα κριθῶσι μὲν κατὰ ἀνθρώπους σαρκὶ ζῶσι δὲ κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι. [NOTE: Arland et al. (2012) note no variants of this verse extant.] There are three verbs in this verse: εὐαγγελίζω = Aorist Passive Indicative (3 person singular) = "the ...


2

The Greek word is ὀλίγαι, the nominative case, plural number, feminine gender declension of the adjective ὀλίγος. (It is declined in the feminine gender because it modifies the noun ψυχαί which is naturally declined in the feminine gender.) It is translated as "few" 14 times in the King James Version. BDAG (p. 703) defines it as, ὀλίγος, η, ον ...


2

The best way to understand what Peter is doing in 1 Peter 4:6 is to study 1 Peter 4:6 in context. Let's start by trying to get the gist of what Peter was attempting to communicate in the passage. 1. Review the author's flow of thought The flow of thought in the context containing this verse (4:1-7) is as follows: Just as Christ suffered death in His ...


2

The context indicates that the people are still judged -- thus, some transgression must still be "charged" or "accounted" to them. Look and the verse after it: Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses [since death happened, there must be sin and transgression], even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam [Adam sinned against a specific ...


2

John says in his first letter, in verses 7 and 8, "For there are three that testify: the Spirit and the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement." It is obvious that we are saved by the blood of Jesus Christ, in that our sins are fully payed for by the act of His death, and there no longer stands any accusation or record of wrong against us ...



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