4
votes
2answers
7k views

What are higher and lower criticism?

What is historical criticism (also known as higher criticism)? What is textual criticism (also known as lower criticism)? How can they help us understand the scriptures? How can they interefere with ...
12
votes
2answers
5k views

What is the difference between historical-grammatical and historical criticism?

The historical-grammatical method and historical criticism are both hermeneutical approaches seeking to uncover the original meaning of the text. What is the difference between the two?
10
votes
1answer
361 views

What role should textual (lower) criticism play in biblical hermeneutics (if any)?

A recent comment on another question demonstrated a common perspective, namely that textual criticism is usually a bad thing when interpreting scripture (some would even go so far as to say that it is ...
11
votes
3answers
480 views

Based on recent manuscript discoveries, is the LXX more reliable than the MT?

Based on recent manuscript discoveries such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, is the text of the LXX more reliable than the MT?
7
votes
2answers
709 views

How reliable are the Dead Sea Scrolls as a base to compare against the Masoretic text and the LXX?

I often find people comparing other manuscripts (e.g., Masoretic text, LXX) against the Dead Sea Scrolls in order to determine their accuracy. For example, this thread asked how reliable the LXX was ...
12
votes
3answers
602 views

How is genre determined?

If you take a hermeneutics course at your local Bible College or Seminary, or pick up a (modern) book on Biblical hermeneutics, it is likely that the topic of genre would take center stage in the ...
17
votes
2answers
362 views

How does a Bible translator know if it is a poem?

Let's take 1 Tim 3:16 as an example among many others, where Paul wrote or quoted (ESV): Great indeed, we confess, is the mystery of godliness: He was manifested in the flesh, vindicated by the ...
10
votes
3answers
550 views

What is the meaning of the “inverted nuns” (׆ … ׆) around Numbers 10:35-36?

Numbers 10:35-36 (ESV) And whenever the ark set out, Moses said, “Arise, O Lord, and let your enemies be scattered, and let those who hate you flee before you.” And when it rested, he said, ...
2
votes
2answers
246 views

What is the meaning of the symbols that appear in the text of the Hebrew Bible?

What is the meaning/reason for the symbols at the end of various verses in the Hebrew Bible? For example, Song of Solomon 6:3: אֲנִ֤י לְדוֹדִי֙ וְדוֹדִ֣י לִ֔י הָרֹעֶ֖ה בַּשׁוֹשַׁנִּֽים׃ ס ...
12
votes
2answers
2k views

How can I identify puns in the Hebrew Bible?

The Bible sometimes uses words with multiple meanings to the effect of an intentional pun or wordplay. Punning seems especially common in Hebrew. I think that being aware of these literary devices ...
9
votes
3answers
17k views

Given the differences between Hebrew and Aramaic, how are the Aramaic sections identified?

There are a handful of Aramaic passages in the Bible; notably in Daniel and Ezra. Since the writing system of these two was the same, how are the Aramaic sections identified?
6
votes
2answers
369 views

Can we use “linguistic fingerprints” to identify different authors of the Bible?

I read, what was to me, quite an interesting blog post about different authors' contributing to different parts of the bible measured by analysing "linguistic fingerprints": For millions of Jews ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

What version of the Bible is translated closest to or directly from the original languages of the texts? [duplicate]

I have for some time now looked at many versions of the Bible to come to the conclusion that most of the translations that try to interpret the text from the original Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek ...
-1
votes
3answers
914 views

Accurate translations of original scripts/text

I've been on what is becoming quite the mission to find the most accurate translation of Daniel 9:23-27 (or the (Tenach/OT) bible in general) of the most original scripts/text available. It seems like ...
5
votes
1answer
180 views

Is there a published version of the Bible, where the text is ordered chronologically in the order it was written?

Has there been a published version of the Bible where the text was ordered in the order it is best assumed that it was written? I'm not interested in a version that is ordered in a chronological ...
4
votes
1answer
411 views

What has changed in Biblical scholarship since the Jerusalem Bible (1966) was published?

I have been reading through the Jerusalem Bible, published by the Roman Catholic Church, and have found a lot of pleasure in the copious footnotes and the surprisingly readable text. Obviously the ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Coherence-Based Genealogical Method vs. Local Text-Types Theory

The NA28 text marks a departure from the traditional methodology of textual criticism. As described by Jeff Kloha in the Concordia Theology Journal, Previous generations learned to classify ...
7
votes
1answer
161 views

Nestle-Aland equivalent critical apparatus for early New Testament translations

As an amateur textual critic, I've become very interested in the early translations of the New Testament, and I found this page listing a number of critical editions of NT translations. At least in ...
2
votes
1answer
764 views

Criticism of the Vulgate: alleged errors and inaccuracies in translation

I often hear that the Latin Vulgate has many inaccuracies of translation. I often hear such criticism from Protestant circles; this (or the relative lack of such discourse among Catholics) might have ...
2
votes
0answers
66 views

Where Could One Find Introductory Material On Structural Analysis Of Text?

I realize this is a broad question and if you want to close it I understand entirely but I can't think of a better place to ask. From my own reading, I believe there are statistical methods which can ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

How can one detect when there is a “community” behind a text?

With an epistle like Galatians, it is rather transparent that there is some sort of community to whom the letter is written. But scholars (e.g. Raymond Brown) have also been known to talk about a ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

English Bible translations based on the Vulgate

Which well-known English Bible translations are based on the Vulgate? Which are not? Knowledge about other languages (e.g. French) is welcome too.
-10
votes
5answers
2k views

Is there bible translation that is more literal than Young Literal Translation

That's it. The translation should not favor any theology and should allow readers to read texts the way it really is For example Elohim -> gods Yea, I know that Elohim are often followed by ...
5
votes
2answers
353 views

Linking NT Greek to Hebrew through the LXX

What tools are the necessary tools to determine what NT Greek words correspond to the Hebrew words that were translated into the LXX?
5
votes
1answer
222 views

Critical Edition of Septuagint in Hebrew

Has the Septuagint been translated back into Hebrew? A critical translation to Hebrew of the LXX on Genesis was published by Moshe Zipor: Zipor, M. (2005). The Septuagint Version of the Book of ...
0
votes
1answer
173 views

Best Septuagint, Masoretic, and Aramaic texts into one English version?

Is there an English version Bible that has the best and oldest translations of the Septuagint and the Masoretic and the Aramaic texts all combined into one translation?
1
vote
1answer
181 views

Looking for electronic copies of the original Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic texts, and electronic translation/analyses databases to interpret them [closed]

If this question is worded poorly or could be rephrased, please do help me know how best to ask it. I am genuinely seeking the information outlined below, but I'm new here, so please forgive me if I ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Where can I find Greek and Hebrew plain text sources? [closed]

Source texts are available with software There are numerous Biblical source texts available (free, in "public domain") for download into Bible software type programs. Where else are they available? ...
5
votes
1answer
146 views

What distinguishes an excellent concordance?

A concordance can be extremely helpful in the study of a text as well as its language. Excellent understanding of the language (aided by a concordance) will help in understanding a religious text, or ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

What is morphological analysis, as it relates to Bible study?

As far as I can tell, morphological analysis is a technique used by Bible students to better understand the original languages in context. How does one go about using a tool such as Robinson's ...
4
votes
1answer
457 views

What do the “Goodrick-Kohlenberger” numbers represent? What features does this system offer in distinction from previous numbering systems?

I notice that not a lot of work is published using Goodrick-Kohlenberger numbers (though I bought an NIV that had them instead of Strong's). What does this numbering system represent? How does it ...
16
votes
2answers
221 views

Why does Job use “bless” to mean “curse”?

This is bizarre to me, and as far as I can find HALOT (a Hebrew lexicon) doesn't even mention it.1 There are 8 instances of brk – the normal word for "bless" – in Job.2 The ESV is ...
10
votes
3answers
948 views

Where was Adam created?

Genesis 2 describes Adam being put in the Garden of Eden: 7then the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living ...
9
votes
1answer
132 views

What is the meaning of Mark 12:34, “You are not far from the Kingdom of God?”

In Mark 12:34, Jesus tells the scribe, And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, "Thou art not far from the kingdom of God." (KJV) In his answer, the scribe recites ...
6
votes
1answer
87 views

What did John the Baptist eat?

Matthew 3:4 and Mark 1:6 describe the food of John the Baptist as locusts and wild honey. The word locust takes different definitions as follows: a. large and mainly tropical grasshopper with ...
-1
votes
1answer
99 views

Gal 5:18 vs John 3:16

Galations 5:18-21 states But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law. Now the works of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, idolatry, sorcery, ...
7
votes
3answers
172 views

What is the difference between ζωὴ and ψυχὴ?

The word "life" appears in most translations of John 12:25 three times. For example, in the ESV: Whoever loves his life loses it, and whoever hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Is Elijah fed by ravens or Arabians?

A couple of commentaries mention that scholars dispute that Elijah was fed by ravens and instead think the word in 1 Kings 17:4-6 ought to be translated black arabs or perhaps "Orbites, i.e., ...
5
votes
1answer
319 views

What does “belly” mean in Philippians 3:19?

Many translations of the Bible use the word "belly" in Philippians 3:19: Their end is destruction, their god is their belly, and they glory in their shame, with minds set on earthly things. (ESV) ...
5
votes
4answers
2k views

What is the significance of the angel being on the right side of the altar of incense in Luke 1:11?

In Luke 1, as Zechariah is in the temple at the altar of incense, we read: And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense. (Luke 1:11, ESV) Why ...
5
votes
3answers
524 views

In Luke 2, Whose Soul is Simeon Suggesting Will be “Pierced”?

and Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, "Behold, this child is destined for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and to be a sign that will be contradicted (and you yourself a sword ...
11
votes
3answers
107 views

Where was Uzziah buried?

2 Chronicles 26:23 (ESV) reads: And Uzziah slept with his fathers, and they buried him with his fathers in the burial field that belonged to the kings, for they said, “He is a leper.” And Jotham ...
23
votes
6answers
26k views

Interpretations of Elihu in Job

In the book of Job, it becomes clear that the first three of Job's friends - Eliphaz, Blidad, and Zophar - speak wrongly. Not only do they incur the indignation of Job and his other friend Elihu, but ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

Who is the Prince of Tyre?

In Ezekiel 28:2 it says," Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyrus, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am a God, I sit in the seat of God, in the ...
4
votes
1answer
117 views

What is the difference between en/eis for Pauline “Faith in Christ” phrases?

Paul has several different phrases which all translate "Faith in Christ". This question pertains to the difference in meaning for faith in Christ where the English word "in" has a direct Greek word, ...
10
votes
5answers
6k views

What does Paul mean by allegory in Galatians 4:24?

Paul's method of interpretation in Galatians 4:21-31 seems a bit unusual as compared to most modern methods. He says these things may be "interpreted allegorically." What is his method of exegesis? ...
10
votes
3answers
11k views

Why does David mourn the death of his adult son Absalom and not the death of his baby son?

When David's son from Bathsheba died David stopped mourning and got up and ate, stating that nothing could be done for his son now: [21] Then his servants said to him, “What is this thing that you ...
9
votes
2answers
625 views

How many and who were the people the women found at Jesus' tomb?

In the empty tomb stories, somebody was already there when the women arrived. But how many people and who were they? For reference: Mark: a young man Matthew: an angel of the Lord Luke: two men ...
12
votes
2answers
13k views

How old was Samuel when Hannah took him to the temple?

In 1 Samuel 1:24 we read: After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of ...
5
votes
3answers
126 views

What does the phrase 'ἐν Χριστῷ' in the Pauline Corpus mean?

Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. 2 Corinthians 5:17 (ESV) For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all ...

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