The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Inconsistent translations of Rv 13:10?

KJV has for Rv 13:10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. ...
6
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82 views

Was the text of Matthew 28:19 changed?

Scholars such as F. C. Conybeare1 have claimed that the Trinitarian baptismal formula of Matthew 28:19 was not original to the text of Matthew. Matt 28:19 (NIV) 19 Therefore go and make ...
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2answers
144 views

Was Jesus angry and if so why in Mark 1:41?

Mark 1:41 NIV: Jesus was indignant.[a] He reached out his hand and touched the man. ‘I am willing,’ he said. ‘Be clean!’ [a] Many manuscripts Jesus was filled with compassion The ...
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3answers
224 views

What is the original Number of the Beast?

Seems trivial question, because 666 had been widely accepted as the original. However if you investigate further different early versions of the Book of Revelation, they gave different Numbers of the ...
9
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3answers
169 views

Matthew originally written in Hebrew?

I recently came across a post which suggested that Mathew was originally written in Hebrew. I had never heard this before... is this a significant scholarly position? If so, what evidence supports it? ...
6
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3answers
401 views

Does the “lost leaf” theory for Mark's abrupt ending fail if written on a scroll?

I really like this explanation of Mark's rather abrupt ending: There are three possible explanations for Mark ending at 16:8: (1) The author intentionally ended the Gospel here in an open-ended ...
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1answer
150 views

How can we understand differences between the NWT and Latin/Hebrew/Greek on Zechariah 12:10?

Is there any early manuscript that shows a word translatable as "the one" (3rd person) in Zechariah 12:10? When looking at Zechariah 12:10, this is how it reads in: New World Translation (NWT) ...
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2answers
695 views

Bart D. Ehrman - respected critic?

I found Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why troublesome to my understanding of the translation process of the bible. It has made me review my understanding of the bible. ...
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1answer
176 views

2 Cor 5:20: “be reconciled to God” translation

I heard somewhere that in 2 Corinthians 5:20 Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech [you] by us: we pray [you] in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God because of ...
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3answers
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Is the ending of the Gospel of Mark (16:9-20) original?

Some scholars believe that the ending of Mark is unoriginal due to it appearing to have a different style and the fact that it's missing from some key manuscripts. At the same time, several early ...
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5answers
2k views

Is John 7:53-8:11 original to John's gospel?

I've read several recent commentaries on John 8 and all agree that the story of the woman caught in adultery almost certainly wasn't there in the original manuscript. Is it original?
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3answers
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What is the meaning of “calculate” in Revelation 13:18?

This is perhaps the most famous prophesy in popular culture: This calls for wisdom: let the one who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man, and his ...
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94 views

How does the Septuagint differ from the Masoretic text for Isaiah 7:14?

The JPS (1917) reads: Therefore the L-rd Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. But the ESV reads: Therefore ...
4
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1answer
256 views

“ἐν Ἐφέσῳ” in Ephesians 1:1

Some comments says that the oldest manuscripts do not contain "in Ephesus" e.g. Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary, Scofield Reference Notes, Clarke's Commentary on the Bible... What can we ...
6
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1answer
83 views

Romans 5:1 and peace with God

The UBS4 reading of Romans 5:1 is: Δικαιωθέντες οὖν ἐκ πίστεως εἰρήνην ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ (emphasis added) At issue is a textual variation concerning the ...
4
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1answer
69 views

The original form(s) of Isaiah 2:2-4 // Micah 4:1-3

Isaiah/Yeshaayahu 2:2-4 and Micah/Micha 4:1-3 (BHS) are almost 90% identical in the Hebrew, leading scholars such as Oswalt to speculate that there may have been two original sources or one source ...
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4answers
639 views

Did God say that Adam will die on the same day he ate the fruit?

but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” (Genesis 2:17, NKJV) but you must not eat from the tree of the ...
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1answer
63 views

Explanation of the Textual Variant in Mark 14:65

The Textus Receptus (Estienne, 1550) has: Καὶ ἤρξαντό τινες ἐμπτύειν αὐτῷ καὶ περικαλύπτειν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ καὶ κολαφίζειν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγειν αὐτῷ Προφήτευσον καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ῥαπίσμασιν αὐτὸν ...
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2answers
3k views

Was Barabbas' given name Jesus?

The ESV is typical in it's rendering of Barabbas' name: Now at the feast the governor was accustomed to release for the crowd any one prisoner whom they wanted. And they had then a notorious ...
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3answers
439 views

How do the traditions of the LXX and MT versions of Jeremiah relate?

Concerning Jeremiah: does the lengthier text tradition found in the MT represent an expansion of the tradition that backed the LXX? Or does the tradition behind the LXX represent an abridgment of the ...
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3answers
227 views

On what basis do some modern Bible manuscripts omit Matt. 17:21?

According to Constantin Tischendorf's critical apparatus (p. 103, footnote for. v. 21) of Matt. 17:21, ϛ Ln Ti τοῦτο δὲ το γένος (aethppl et talis) οὐκ ἐκπορεύεται (אbG εκβαλλετ. , ti2 al15 ...
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1answer
98 views

Are the 7 appearances of “Jehovah” in the KJV significant or random?

Why did Tyndale (and later, the KJV translating committees) keep Jewish tradition by translating the Tetragrammaton as LORD thousands of times, but make exceptions by translating it as "Jehovah" only ...
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4answers
368 views

Who led the people out of Israel in Jude 5?

Lest anyone think this is a "stump the chumps" question, I am specifically interested in support for a particular reading of this text. It is disputed which manuscript should be followed in Jude 5. ...
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66 views

Nestle-Aland equvalent critical apparatus for early New Testament translations

As an amateur textual critic, I've become very interested in the early translations of the New Testament, and I found this page listing a number of critical editions of NT translations. At least in ...
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2answers
93 views

Reconciling the Differences in Jesus' Citation of Deu. 6:5 according to the Synoptics

According to the Masoretic text of Deu. 6:5, it is written, וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יַהְוֶה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ which the Septuagint (according to Rahlf's ...
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5answers
1k views

Did Jesus sweat blood?

Luke 22:44 (NIV) And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground. Was this a literal thing--did he actually sweat drops of blood. Is ...
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1answer
118 views

Are there any Biblical scholars/textual critics who think the Gospels originally are in Greek?

Are there any Biblical Scholars/Textual critics who believe that the 4 Gospels were originally written in Greek? I'm talking about the originals, the first ever copies not the manuscripts that we ...
5
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2answers
148 views

Why does NIV translate Revelation 22:14, Blessed are those who wash their robes?

Revelation 22:14 (New International Version) 14 “Blessed are those who wash their robes, that they may have the right to the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. Revelation ...
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2answers
2k views

How authentic is Codex Sinaiticus?

From what I understand, these are the best codices available. Codex Sinaiticus Codex Vaticanus Codex Alexandrinus Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. Codex Sinaiticus is considered the only complete New ...
7
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1answer
201 views

What led to the division of Ezra-Nehemiah?

Modern consensus is that the books of Ezra and Nehemiah actually comprise a single work which was subsequently divided into two. How is it that scholars realized this was the same book (Does it have ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Is 1 Corinthians 14:33-35 an interpolation?

One of the answers to the question about what 1st Corinthians 14:34-35 means suggests that the passage is a later interpolation. From the quote by J.W. Wartick, included in the answer, there are ...
5
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1answer
99 views

Spiritually or Symbolically Called, and Whose Lord in Revelation 11:8?

The King James Version of the Bible translates Revelation 11:8 (emphasis mine) as: And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, ...
7
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1answer
649 views

Coherence-Based Genealogical Method vs. Local Text-Types Theory

The NA28 text marks a departure from the traditional methodology of textual criticism. As described by Jeff Kloha in the Concordia Theology Journal, Previous generations learned to classify ...
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1answer
77 views

Can the final compilation of the Psalms be dated?

It seems reasonable to conclude that the Psalms were written over time by various authors, but can one reasonably date the final compilation of the Psalms? Were they compiled during the exile? Shortly ...
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2answers
239 views

Was nûn deleted from Psalm 145 in the Masoretic Text?

Psalm 145 is an acrostic of the Hebrew alphabet, except that in most of the MT manuscripts verse 13b is missing along with therefore the letter nûn. The ESV renders it like this: Your kingdom is an ...
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3answers
487 views

What does Cain say to Abel in Genesis 4:8?

The Masoretic version of Genesis 4:8 reads as follows: וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן, אֶל-הֶבֶל אָחִיו; וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה, וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל-הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ. And Cain said to his ...
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2answers
291 views

Is “Children of Israel” the only way to read Deuteronomy 32:8?

I asked a Jew and this is what she said: As for Deut 32:8, there is not a single Hebrew text that does not say 'bnei Yisrael'. Every Jewish translation of this verse says children [or sons] ...
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4answers
345 views

Contextually, which English translation/ Greek text seems more probable in Rev. 5:10?

In the King James Version of Rev. 5:10, we find the following phrase, And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth. If we examine the immediate context, the ...
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3answers
352 views

Why is part of Luke 9:55-56 omitted in some Bible translations?

In the KJV we have But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to ...
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2answers
129 views

How can we understand differences between NWT and Latin/Greek on Acts 20:28?

Is there any early manuscript that shows a word translatable as "son" in Acts 20:28? When looking at Acts 20:28 this is how it reads in: New World Translation (NWT) Pay attention to ...
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1answer
98 views

Can Revelation 20:5 “the rest of the dead…” rightfully claim to be part of the original text?

Augustin delighted in viewing the church's bishops sitting on thrones, therefore announcing the Millennium as having begun already. After history this view seems hard to maintain. The thousand years ...
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1answer
209 views

How are early Greek manuscripts that quote Jesus Christ properly understood?

When the words of Jesus Christ are evaluated from early Greek manuscripts shouldn’t translation difficulties between Hebrew and Greek be considered? For example, the word spirit in Hebrew is “ruwach” ...
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2answers
540 views

What is the argument against the authenticity of 1 John 5:7-8 in the KJV?

I was reading through Lee Strobel's The Case for the Real Jesus and came across a passage in the book that indicates the inauthenticity of 1 John 5:7-8 in the King James Version: 1 John 5:7-8 ...
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2answers
99 views

In 1 Peter 1:4, why did the translators of the KJV translate εἰς ἡμᾶς as “for you”?

The Greek text of the Textus Receptus: εἰς κληρονομίαν ἄφθαρτον καὶ ἀμίαντον καὶ ἀμάραντον τετηρημένην ἐν οὐρανοῖς εἰς ἡμᾶς εἰς ἡμᾶς are basic Greek words, so how could such learned Greek ...
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1answer
73 views

How many people were struck dead at Beth Shemesh?

In 1 Samuel 6:19 a number of people are struck dead by God after looking into the ark of the LORD. 1 Samuel 6:19 (NIV) But God struck down some of the inhabitants of Beth Shemesh, putting ...
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2answers
249 views

What does it mean in Matthew 24:15 and Mark 13:14 when the text says, “Whoso readeth, let him understand”?

I have seen that this remark is a redaction, but most reliable sources say that it was included in the original texts sometime in the 1st Century, most likely 66-70 CE. Commentaries over the direct ...
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2answers
84 views

When did the textual variation in Daniel 7:13 arise?

Daniel's famous vision is recorded in the middle of chapter 7: I was watching in the night visions, “And with the clouds of the sky one like a son of man was approaching. He went ...
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1answer
49 views

How should the ending of 2 Peter 2:11 read?

Related to this question, I noticed that the ending of 2 Peter 2:11 is translated respectively by the NIV and ESV as "from the Lord" and "before the Lord." From what I can tell this seems to be owing ...
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3answers
183 views

Should 1 Kings 19:3 read that Elijah “saw” or “was afraid”?

While the NET's translation of 1 Kings 19:3 retains that "Elijah was afraid", it notes: The MT has “and he saw,” but some medieval Hebrew mss as well as several ancient versions support the ...
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2answers
130 views

Details on “Western Unical D”?

The story of the woman caught in adultery in John 7:53-8:11 is generally regarded as inauthentic and uninspired. D. A. Carson says the following in his commentary on this passage (p.333): These ...