The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Nestle-Aland equivalent critical apparatus for early New Testament translations

As an amateur textual critic, I've become very interested in the early translations of the New Testament, and I found this page listing a number of critical editions of NT translations. At least in ...
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Isaiah 3:12: ‘…women rule over them.'

Isaiah 3:12a: My people — infants are their oppressors,      and women rule over them. (ESV) עַמִּי נֹגְשָׂיו מְעוֹלֵל וְנָשִׁים מָשְׁלוּ בוֹ (WLC) ...
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What is the proper translation of Hosea 11:12?

I have been researching Hosea 11:12 and have come to realize that it is translated differently in many differing translations of the Bible. It is sometimes translated that Judah walked (or ruled) with ...
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Bart D. Ehrman - respected critic? [closed]

I found Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why troublesome to my understanding of the translation process of the bible. It has made me review my understanding of the bible. ...
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When was the Hebrew Bible's exact text/spelling synchronized globally?

The Hebrew Bible is essentially identical in all Jewish communities, despite significant differences in spellings and wordings from the Septuagint or texts in the Dead Sea Scrolls, or even from quoted ...
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230 views

Earliest attestation to Luke's gospel

What is the earliest convincing attestation to the gospel of Luke? I believe that Justin Martyr quotes from Luke's gospel ca.150. Is that generally considered unassailable? Are there other earlier ...
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How do the traditions of the LXX and MT versions of Jeremiah relate?

Concerning Jeremiah: does the lengthier text tradition found in the MT represent an expansion of the tradition that backed the LXX? Or does the tradition behind the LXX represent an abridgment of the ...
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How many days until Nineveh will be overthrown?

When Jonah declares the destruction of Nineveh to its inhabitants, his only words are (3:4b): עוֹד אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְנִֽינְוֵ֖ה נֶהְפָּֽכֶת׃ (BHS) Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be ...
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Could saying that Melchizedek was “without beginning of days or end of life” possibly be a textual error?

Few mysteries of the Bible have attracted more interest than the mystery of the identity of Melchizedek. He is mentioned in Genesis 14:14-20; Psalm 110:4; Hebrews 5:6, 10, 6:20, 7:1-17; but Hebrews ...
4
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118 views

Who are “the sons of disobedience” in Colossians 3:6?

If this variant represents the original text, then who are "the sons of disobedience" (τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας, tous huious tēs apeitheias) in Colossians 3:6? NA28: δι᾿ ἃ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ ...
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“His love never ceases” vs. “we are not consumed” in Lamentations 3:22

Lamentations 3:22a חַֽסְדֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ כִּ֣י לֹא־תָ֔מְנוּ The steadfast love of the LORD never ceases... (ESV) ESV footnote: Syriac, Targum; Hebrew Because of the steadfast love of the LORD, ...
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Are there any major contestants to the transmissional accuracy of the NT? [closed]

I've been doing some research on how reliable the reconstructed Greek NTs are (I would suppose the Nestle-Aland and UBS). One paper I see cited more than any other is Clay Jones' paper to the ...
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5answers
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Is John 7:53-8:11 original to John's gospel?

I've read several recent commentaries on John 8 and all agree that the story of the woman caught in adultery almost certainly wasn't there in the original manuscript. Is it original?
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Is the ending of the Gospel of Mark (16:9-20) original?

Some scholars believe that the ending of Mark is unoriginal due to it appearing to have a different style and the fact that it's missing from some key manuscripts. At the same time, several early ...
4
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1answer
114 views

What is the correct translation and meaning of Matt. 11:19?

Matt. 11:19 says,(KJV) " The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her ...
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What is the original Number of the Beast?

Seems trivial question, because 666 had been widely accepted as the original. However if you investigate further different early versions of the Book of Revelation, they gave different Numbers of the ...
2
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1answer
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Were New Testament Books Written to be Historical Documents?

Question Did New Testament Authors, (such as Luke), employ extant "copying" techniques used by Scribes to ensure that content would be preserved, and that copies could be authenticated? For Example: ...
4
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30 views

Two Jozabad's in 1 Chronicles 12:20?

I found this interesting and wondered if anyone had anything to say about it. 1 Chronicles 12 20 As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and ...
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721 views

Why do different English translations differ on Matthew 24:36?

This question has been separated from this one at the request of Jon Ericson. (Thanks again for the edit.) When one looks at different translations of Matthew 24:36, one finds that the KJV mentions ...
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1answer
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Best Septuagint, Masoretic, and Aramaic texts into one English version?

Is there an English version Bible that has the best and oldest translations of the Septuagint and the Masoretic and the Aramaic texts all combined into one translation?
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“Voice” or “string” in Psalm 19:4?

I’m trying to figure out what’s going on in Psalm 19:4/5a: Their voice goes out through all the earth ESV 19:4a :בְּכָל־הָאָ֨רֶץ ׀ יָ֘צָ֤א קַוָּ֗ם BHS 19:5a εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος ...
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Textual criticism of the Hebrew bible and the rule of the ‘lectio difficilior'

I have a basic idea that, in New Testament text criticism, there is a guideline that the more difficult reading is more likely to be correct. (Mentioned in this answer on BH.SE. Even Wikipedia knows ...
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Does Sirach have a verse 42:31?

Hebrew Wikisource has the following for Sirach/Ecclesiasticus/Ben-Sira Chapter 42 Verse 31: לָשֵׂאת לֶקַח מֵחֲכָמִים וְלִשְׁמוֹעַ אֱמֶת מִפִּי אוֹמְרָהּ To take good messages from wise ones and ...
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3answers
162 views

What is the significance of the definite article in 1 Cor 14:2?

In John MacArthur's Bible Commentary, he says that in 1 Cor 14:2, before God there is no definite article so it could be translated "a god" instead of "God." In some Greek texts there is an article, ...
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2answers
71 views

Acts 11:20: Ἕλληνας or Ἑλληνιστάς?

In Acts 11:20, of the words Ἕλληνας and Ἑλληνιστάς, which reading is more probable according to textual criticism? Which reading is more probable according to context? What is the meaning of each ...
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3answers
589 views

Why does NIV translate Revelation 22:14, Blessed are those who wash their robes?

Revelation 22:14 (New International Version) 14 “Blessed are those who wash their robes, that they may have the right to the tree of life and may go through the gates into the city. Revelation ...
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Revelation 6:17 KJV For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

Can any one illustrate to me the manuscript evidence supporting "the great day of their wrath" as opposed to "His wrath”?
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What are the arguments for and against Johannine Comma?

There have been many debates regarding the reliability of the Johannine Comma, a verse in 1 John which many textual critics do not think is authentic. Assuming the verse itself is authentic, what are ...
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Why is “Joseph” used in some translations of Luke 2:33?

It seems that most English translations of Luke 2:33 use "father", but the 1599 Geneva Bible, the King James Version, and the Young's Literal Translation use "Joseph". It seems that this difference is ...
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1answer
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ὀλιγοπιστίαν vs ἀπιστίαν in Mat 17:20

Is their faith little or absent? ὀλιγοπιστίαν (little faith) is found in Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, but ἀπιστίαν (lack of faith) is in the textus receptus and the majority text and goes back, as far ...
5
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Were verses 15-18 a later addition to Genesis 22?

I recently learned that many scholars think that verses 15-18 of Genesis 22 were a later addition to the text. These verses comprise the second angelic monologue after his initial instruction to spare ...
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1answer
608 views

Is “Children of Israel” the only way to read Deuteronomy 32:8?

I asked a Jew and this is what she said: As for Deut 32:8, there is not a single Hebrew text that does not say 'bnei Yisrael'. Every Jewish translation of this verse says children [or sons] ...
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What does Cain say to Abel in Genesis 4:8?

The Masoretic version of Genesis 4:8 reads as follows: וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן, אֶל-הֶבֶל אָחִיו; וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה, וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל-הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ. And Cain said to his ...
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Is the use of the smallest possible example meant to indicate a complete absence of faith in Jesus sayings related to mustard seeds? [duplicate]

Jesus tells his disciples that they don't even have faith as big as a mustard seed: Τότε προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ τῷ Ἰησοῦ κατ᾽ ἰδίαν εἶπον· διὰ τί ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό; ὁ δὲ λέγει ...
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Why is part of Luke 9:55-56 omitted in some Bible translations?

In the KJV we have But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of. For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to ...
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1 Cor. 2:1 - μαρτύριον v. μυστήριον

Textus Receptus (Estienne, 1550): Κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἀδελφοί ἦλθον οὐ καθ᾽ ὑπεροχὴν λόγου ἢ σοφίας καταγγέλλων ὑμῖν τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ θεοῦ Nestle-Aland 28th ed.: Κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ...
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How reliable are the Dead Sea Scrolls as a base to compare against the Masoretic text and the LXX?

I often find people comparing other manuscripts (e.g., Masoretic text, LXX) against the Dead Sea Scrolls in order to determine their accuracy. For example, this thread asked how reliable the LXX was ...
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What is the argument against the authenticity of 1 John 5:7-8 in the KJV?

I was reading through Lee Strobel's The Case for the Real Jesus and came across a passage in the book that indicates the inauthenticity of 1 John 5:7-8 in the King James Version: 1 John 5:7-8 ...
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Acts 16:16: Meaning of πύθωνος (Textus Receptus) and πύθωνα (NA28)

Acts 16:16 according to the Textus Receptus (Estienne, 1550): Ἐγένετο δὲ πορευομένων ἡμῶν εἰς προσευχὴν παιδίσκην τινὰ ἔχουσαν πνεῦμα πύθωνος ἀπαντῆσαι ἡμῖν ἥτις ἐργασίαν πολλὴν παρεῖχεν τοῖς ...
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Was the text of Matthew 28:19 changed?

Scholars such as F. C. Conybeare1 have claimed that the Trinitarian baptismal formula of Matthew 28:19 was not original to the text of Matthew. Matt 28:19 (NIV) 19 Therefore go and make ...
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433 views

Based on recent manuscript discoveries, is the LXX more reliable than the MT?

Based on recent manuscript discoveries such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, is the text of the LXX more reliable than the MT?
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578 views

Who led the people of Israel out of Egypt in Jude 5?

Lest anyone think this is a "stump the chumps" question, I am specifically interested in support for a particular reading of this text. It is disputed which manuscript should be followed in Jude 5. ...
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510 views

Is there any reason to think that Mark 7:19 has a later addition?

This is Mark 7:19 from the NIV: For it doesn’t go into their heart but into their stomach, and then out of the body.” (In saying this, Jesus declared all foods clean.) Every time I see a ...
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Was υἱοῦ θεοῦ a latter addition to Mark 1:1?

Dick Harfield mentions that the phrase "Son of God" (υἱοῦ θεοῦ) does not appear in Codex Sinaiticus (nor in Origen). Is it reasonable to assume on this basis that the phrases was a later addition to ...
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Why is 1 John 5:7-8, found in the KJV, kept in the NKJV when it is believed to be inauthentic?

1 John 5:7-8 King James Version (KJV) 7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. 8 And there are three that ...
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John 14:14 in P75

I apologize if this is the wrong place to ask, but, I understand that P75 and P66 are the oldest attestations of the word me in John 14:14: "If you ask me for anything in my name, I will do it" NIV ...
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Galatians 4:6 — Why do King James and NKJV say “your hearts” and other translations say “our hearts”

The NIV for example reads, And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" The NKJV reads, And because you are sons, God has sent ...
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116 views

Is there evidence that the name “Lazarus” in the story of Lazarus and the Rich Man is a later addition?

I'm investigating all the avenues that explain the story as a parable and not a real event. One thought that occurred to me is that an early scribe added Lazarus to the story to point to similarities ...
14
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376 views

Did Jesus read minds or perceive them?

In this passage, most English translations say "knowing their thoughts". In the footnote it says "perceiving" their thoughts. I feel like this is a pretty monumental difference as perceiving thoughts ...
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367 views

2 Cor 5:20: “be reconciled to God” translation

I heard somewhere that in 2 Corinthians 5:20 Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech [you] by us: we pray [you] in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God because of ...