The art/science of textual criticism attempts to reconstruct the oldest or original wording of a given text.

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Interpreting “psyche” as “soul” [closed]

In the New Testament the Greek term "psyche" often, if not always, gets translated as "soul." Would the original author using that term have meant "psyche" like we mean it today? Or, more precisely, ...
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42 views

Not keep silent or to make silent in Job 41:12?

Job 41:4 (MT; v. 12 in English versions): NRSV: I will not keep silence concerning its limbs ... ESV: I will not keep silence concerning his limbs ... NASB: I will not keep silence concerning ...
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135 views

Do any scholars argue a textual theory where the NT text was edited to make the autographa? [closed]

One Textual Creation/Transmission Theory Michael A. Grisanti in "Inspiration, Inerrancy, and the OT Canon: The Place of Textual Updating in an Inerrant View of Scripture," Journal of the Evangelical ...
4
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1answer
66 views

Might “son of Barachiah” be a scribal addition in Matthew 23:35?

The apparently confused identification of "Zechariah the son of Barachiah" in Matthew 23:35 is well known.* Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and ...
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4answers
418 views

What factors bear on the authenticity of Matthew 23:14?

Modern translations of the New Testament omit some verses found in the King James Bible (missing verses). The reason for the differences is that modern translations use the Nestle-Aland edition of the ...
4
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2answers
114 views

Hope or no hope in Job 13:15?

Job 13:15a NRSV: See, he will kill me; I have no hope ... ESV: Though he slay me, I will hope in him ... BHS: הֵן יִקְטְלֵנִי לֹא [לוֹ] אֲיַחֵל The difference rests on whether to prefer the ...
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2answers
143 views

Matt. 5:28: αὐτὴν or αὐτῆς as the object of τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι?

The Textus Receptus (1550, Estienne) has the pronoun αὐτῆς as the object of the infinitive τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι, while the NA28 has αὐτὴν. Grammatically, which is the preferred reading? Which manuscripts ...
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86 views

“Blessed be the glory of the LORD from its place”

Ezekiel 3:12-13a (BHS | ESV): וַתִּשָּׂאֵ֣נִי ר֔וּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַ֣ע אַחֲרַ֔י ק֖וֹל רַ֣עַשׁ גָּד֑וֹל בָּר֥וּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָ֖ה מִמְּקוֹמֽוֹ׃ וְק֣וֹל ׀ כַּנְפֵ֣י הַחַיּ֗וֹת מַשִּׁיקוֹת֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה ...
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111 views

Whose faith is the subject of Hebrews 11:11?

Πίστει καὶ αὐτὴ Σάρρα δύναμιν εἰς καταβολὴν σπέρματος ἔλαβεν καὶ παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας, ἐπεὶ πιστὸν ἡγήσατο τὸν ἐπαγγειλάμενον (Hebrews 11:11, Westcott and Hort) The traditional translation of ...
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3answers
152 views

What passage is the author of “To the Hebrews” quoting in Hebrews 1:6?

What passage is the author of "To the Hebrews" quoting in Hebrews 1:6?: Heb 1:6 And again, when he reintroduces the firstbegotten into the populated lands, he says, "And let all the angels of ...
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2answers
185 views

Isaiah 3:12: ‘…women rule over them.'

Isaiah 3:12a: My people — infants are their oppressors,      and women rule over them. (ESV) עַמִּי נֹגְשָׂיו מְעוֹלֵל וְנָשִׁים מָשְׁלוּ בוֹ (WLC) ...
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1answer
116 views

How many days until Nineveh will be overthrown?

When Jonah declares the destruction of Nineveh to its inhabitants, his only words are (3:4b): עוֹד אַרְבָּעִ֣ים י֔וֹם וְנִֽינְוֵ֖ה נֶהְפָּֽכֶת׃ (BHS) Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be ...
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63 views

“His love never ceases” vs. “we are not consumed” in Lamentations 3:22

Lamentations 3:22a חַֽסְדֵ֤י יְהוָה֙ כִּ֣י לֹא־תָ֔מְנוּ The steadfast love of the LORD never ceases... (ESV) ESV footnote: Syriac, Targum; Hebrew Because of the steadfast love of the LORD, ...
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180 views

Who are “the sons of disobedience” in Colossians 3:6?

If this variant represents the original text, then who are "the sons of disobedience" (τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας, tous huious tēs apeitheias) in Colossians 3:6? NA28: δι᾿ ἃ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ ...
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128 views

When was the Hebrew Bible's exact text/spelling synchronized globally?

The Hebrew Bible is essentially identical in all Jewish communities, despite significant differences in spellings and wordings from the Septuagint or texts in the Dead Sea Scrolls, or even from quoted ...
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78 views

Are there any major contestants to the transmissional accuracy of the NT? [closed]

I've been doing some research on how reliable the reconstructed Greek NTs are (I would suppose the Nestle-Aland and UBS). One paper I see cited more than any other is Clay Jones' paper to the ...
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1answer
151 views

What is the correct translation and meaning of Matt. 11:19?

Matt. 11:19 says,(KJV) " The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her ...
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32 views

Two Jozabad's in 1 Chronicles 12:20?

I found this interesting and wondered if anyone had anything to say about it. 1 Chronicles 12 20 As he went to Ziklag, there fell to him of Manasseh, Adnah, and Jozabad, and Jediael, and ...
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43 views

How can one detect when there is a “community” behind a text?

With an epistle like Galatians, it is rather transparent that there is some sort of community to whom the letter is written. But scholars (e.g. Raymond Brown) have also been known to talk about a ...
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1answer
64 views

Were New Testament Books Written to be Historical Documents?

Question Did New Testament Authors, (such as Luke), employ extant "copying" techniques used by Scribes to ensure that content would be preserved, and that copies could be authenticated? For Example: ...
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1answer
156 views

Best Septuagint, Masoretic, and Aramaic texts into one English version?

Is there an English version Bible that has the best and oldest translations of the Septuagint and the Masoretic and the Aramaic texts all combined into one translation?
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1answer
85 views

Textual criticism of the Hebrew bible and the rule of the ‘lectio difficilior'

I have a basic idea that, in New Testament text criticism, there is a guideline that the more difficult reading is more likely to be correct. (Mentioned in this answer on BH.SE. Even Wikipedia knows ...
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0answers
69 views

Does Sirach have a verse 42:31?

Hebrew Wikisource has the following for Sirach/Ecclesiasticus/Ben-Sira Chapter 42 Verse 31: לָשֵׂאת לֶקַח מֵחֲכָמִים וְלִשְׁמוֹעַ אֱמֶת מִפִּי אוֹמְרָהּ To take good messages from wise ones and ...
4
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1answer
128 views

Why is “Joseph” used in some translations of Luke 2:33?

It seems that most English translations of Luke 2:33 use "father", but the 1599 Geneva Bible, the King James Version, and the Young's Literal Translation use "Joseph". It seems that this difference is ...
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4answers
167 views

“Voice” or “string” in Psalm 19:4?

I’m trying to figure out what’s going on in Psalm 19:4/5a: Their voice goes out through all the earth ESV 19:4a :בְּכָל־הָאָ֨רֶץ ׀ יָ֘צָ֤א קַוָּ֗ם BHS 19:5a εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος ...
3
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1answer
59 views

ὀλιγοπιστίαν vs ἀπιστίαν in Mat 17:20

Is their faith little or absent? ὀλιγοπιστίαν (little faith) is found in Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, but ἀπιστίαν (lack of faith) is in the textus receptus and the majority text and goes back, as far ...
5
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1answer
78 views

Were verses 15-18 a later addition to Genesis 22?

I recently learned that many scholars think that verses 15-18 of Genesis 22 were a later addition to the text. These verses comprise the second angelic monologue after his initial instruction to spare ...
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52 views

Is the use of the smallest possible example meant to indicate a complete absence of faith in Jesus sayings related to mustard seeds? [duplicate]

Jesus tells his disciples that they don't even have faith as big as a mustard seed: Τότε προσελθόντες οἱ μαθηταὶ τῷ Ἰησοῦ κατ᾽ ἰδίαν εἶπον· διὰ τί ἡμεῖς οὐκ ἠδυνήθημεν ἐκβαλεῖν αὐτό; ὁ δὲ λέγει ...
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1answer
114 views

1 Cor. 2:1 - μαρτύριον v. μυστήριον

Textus Receptus (Estienne, 1550): Κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἀδελφοί ἦλθον οὐ καθ᾽ ὑπεροχὴν λόγου ἢ σοφίας καταγγέλλων ὑμῖν τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ θεοῦ Nestle-Aland 28th ed.: Κἀγὼ ἐλθὼν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, ...
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3answers
237 views

Could saying that Melchizedek was “without beginning of days or end of life” possibly be a textual error?

Few mysteries of the Bible have attracted more interest than the mystery of the identity of Melchizedek. He is mentioned in Genesis 14:14-20; Psalm 110:4; Hebrews 5:6, 10, 6:20, 7:1-17; but Hebrews ...
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1answer
149 views

What are the arguments for and against Johannine Comma?

There have been many debates regarding the reliability of the Johannine Comma, a verse in 1 John which many textual critics do not think is authentic. Assuming the verse itself is authentic, what are ...
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1answer
76 views

Acts 16:16: Meaning of πύθωνος (Textus Receptus) and πύθωνα (NA28)

Acts 16:16 according to the Textus Receptus (Estienne, 1550): Ἐγένετο δὲ πορευομένων ἡμῶν εἰς προσευχὴν παιδίσκην τινὰ ἔχουσαν πνεῦμα πύθωνος ἀπαντῆσαι ἡμῖν ἥτις ἐργασίαν πολλὴν παρεῖχεν τοῖς ...
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2answers
105 views

Revelation 6:17 KJV For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

Can any one illustrate to me the manuscript evidence supporting "the great day of their wrath" as opposed to "His wrath”?
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173 views

Was υἱοῦ θεοῦ a latter addition to Mark 1:1?

Dick Harfield mentions that the phrase "Son of God" (υἱοῦ θεοῦ) does not appear in Codex Sinaiticus (nor in Origen). Is it reasonable to assume on this basis that the phrases was a later addition to ...
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1answer
116 views

John 14:14 in P75

I apologize if this is the wrong place to ask, but, I understand that P75 and P66 are the oldest attestations of the word me in John 14:14: "If you ask me for anything in my name, I will do it" NIV ...
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1answer
64 views

Galatians 4:6 — Why do King James and NKJV say “your hearts” and other translations say “our hearts”

The NIV for example reads, And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" The NKJV reads, And because you are sons, God has sent ...
4
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1answer
156 views

Is there evidence that the name “Lazarus” in the story of Lazarus and the Rich Man is a later addition?

I'm investigating all the avenues that explain the story as a parable and not a real event. One thought that occurred to me is that an early scribe added Lazarus to the story to point to similarities ...
2
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3answers
211 views

What is the significance of the definite article in 1 Cor 14:2?

In John MacArthur's Bible Commentary, he says that in 1 Cor 14:2, before God there is no definite article so it could be translated "a god" instead of "God." In some Greek texts there is an article, ...
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2answers
78 views

Acts 11:20: Ἕλληνας or Ἑλληνιστάς?

In Acts 11:20, of the words Ἕλληνας and Ἑλληνιστάς, which reading is more probable according to textual criticism? Which reading is more probable according to context? What is the meaning of each ...
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3answers
507 views

Did Jesus read minds or perceive them?

In this passage, most English translations say "knowing their thoughts". In the footnote it says "perceiving" their thoughts. I feel like this is a pretty monumental difference as perceiving thoughts ...
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0answers
66 views

Where Could One Find Introductory Material On Structural Analysis Of Text?

I realize this is a broad question and if you want to close it I understand entirely but I can't think of a better place to ask. From my own reading, I believe there are statistical methods which can ...
4
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1answer
318 views

Earliest attestation to Luke's gospel

What is the earliest convincing attestation to the gospel of Luke? I believe that Justin Martyr quotes from Luke's gospel ca.150. Is that generally considered unassailable? Are there other earlier ...
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1answer
76 views

Question about NET note and Symbols for Codex Sinaiticus

I have a basic question about NET Bible footnote. The note for Matt 17:21 says: Many important MSS (א* B Θ 0281 33 579 892 pc e ff1 sys,c sa) do not include 17:21 "But this kind does not go out ...
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3answers
3k views

Omission of 'fasting' in Mark 9:29

I would like to know why some versions feel it apt to omit the word "fasting" from Mark 9:29. Is this because it was not concurrent with the correct translation/ meaning of this verse? For example. ...
4
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0answers
106 views

Which Greek NT passage has proven to have the most variant readings? [closed]

The question here is not about trying to isolate which particular manuscript (extant document) has the most variations from some standard determination of the text. Rather, it is about which ...
6
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2answers
603 views

Is verse 114 of the Gospel of Thomas a later addition?

Simon Peter said to him, "Let Mary leave us, for women are not worthy of life." Jesus said, "I myself shall lead her in order to make her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling ...
2
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1answer
81 views

Did the author intend to write Asa or Asaph in Matthew 1:7-8?

Both the King James and the NIV (following the received text and the Chronicler) name Asa as the father of Jehoshaphat in Matthew 1:8. The ESV, however, follows the older manuscripts and names him as ...
11
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3answers
701 views

Is there any reason to think that Mark 7:19 has a later addition?

This is Mark 7:19 from the NIV: For it doesn’t go into their heart but into their stomach, and then out of the body.” (In saying this, Jesus declared all foods clean.) Every time I see a ...
7
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1answer
211 views

Is the source text of part of 1 Kings 19 potentially from a corrupted copy?

I noticed a similarity in two sets of passages from 1 Kings 19, and was wondering if either (1) there is any historical textual evidence that might point to dittography having occurred, and that a ...
6
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1answer
15k views

Is the 1500-Year-Old Gospel of Barnabas found in Turkey claiming Jesus was never crucified genuine or a hoax?

A Bible which is reported to be at least 1500 years old was discovered in Turkey and inside it there is a Gospel of Barnabas. The book was moved by Turkish government to one of their museums by ...