Paul's letter to the church in Rome.

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Does Romans 9:5 assert the deity of Christ?

Also known by the more pedestrian title: How should Romans 9:5 be punctuated? Romans 9:5, NA28 (punctuation omitted): ὧν οἱ πατέρες καὶ ἐξ ὧν ὁ Χριστὸς τὸ κατὰ σάρκα ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων θεὸς ...
18
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8answers
2k views

Does Paul refer to his past or present evil/sin in Romans 7

In Romans 7:19, Paul says this: For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I keep on doing. ESV Is Paul talking about "doing evil" in his present, converted state, or ...
17
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3answers
3k views

Are Andronicus and Junia(s) apostles?

Two of our most literal English translations render Romans 16:7 in remarkably different ways: NASB: Greet Andronicus and Junias, my kinsmen and my fellow prisoners, who are outstanding among the ...
16
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6answers
14k views

Translation of “abba” (Αββα, אבא)

What is the best English translation of abba (Greek: Αββα, Aramaic: אבא) such as in Romans 8:15? What are its senses in the original languages, and are those best captured by father, dad, daddy, or ...
15
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4answers
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Who subjected the creation to futility in Rom. 8:20-21?

Paul says that creation was subjected to futility in Romans 8:20-21 ESV: For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation ...
13
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1answer
188 views

Is Romans 3:24-26 original to Paul?

Romans 3:23-26 (NA28, ESV): πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον καὶ ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι διὰ τῆς ...
12
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2answers
717 views

Is it true that Luther intentionally mistranslated Romans 3:28?

I recently listened to Dr. Scott Hahn's conversion testimony. One thing that really jumped out at me was that Dr. Hahn stated that Luther purposely inserted the German word "allein" (alone) into ...
12
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9answers
21k views

Why did Paul collect and deliver an offering for the Jerusalem church?

Paul's collection for the Jerusalem church occupies significant portions of his letters (1 Cor 16:1–4; 2 Cor 8:1–9:15; Rom 15:14–32). It is so important to Paul he is willing to face hostility (...
12
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2answers
979 views

What does “justify” (δικαιόω) mean in James 2:24, Romans 3:28?

James 2:24 says: You see that a man is justified by works and not by faith alone. Romans 3:28 says: For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law. What are ...
11
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2answers
314 views

Is Romans 1:17 ambiguous?

ESV: 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.” The NIV and KJV read similarly. I have always understood the ...
11
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2answers
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What is the textual evidence for defining “μισέω” as “reject”?

I have heard that μισέω does not necessarily mean hate in the sense of a wrathful detestation, but can also have a judicial sense, i.e. reject. A classic example where this meaning would be applied is ...
11
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2answers
287 views

Was Jesus raised 'for our justification' or 'because of' it?

In the NASB, Romans 4:25 (emphasis mine) reads: He who was delivered over because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification. However, in the ESV (emphasis mine) it ...
11
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2answers
548 views

What is the Righteousness of God in Romans 1:17?

Romans 1:16-17 (excerpted), ESV: For I am not ashamed of the gospel . . . For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith . . . SBLGNT: Οὐ γὰρ ἐπαισχύνομαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ....
11
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1answer
77 views

Differences in justification method in Romans 3:30

Romans 3:30 εἴπερ εἷς ὁ θεὸς ὃς δικαιώσει περιτομὴν ἐκ πίστεως καὶ ἀκροβυστίαν διὰ τῆς πίστεως.(NA28) since God is one—who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised ...
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3answers
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What is the meaning of “heap burning coals on his head”?

Paul, in his letter to the Romans, in a longer passage entreating his readers to love one another, quotes from Proverbs 25:21-22: Romans 12:20 NIV On the contrary: "If your enemy is hungry, feed ...
10
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2answers
171 views

Sense of περἰ in Romans 8:3

Romans 8:3 says the following καἰ περἰ ἁμαρτἰας (and for sin) Many translations suggest as an offering for sin as an alternate translation. I can see how περί can mean in place of, but is as an ...
10
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1answer
24k views

What does the term “principalities and powers” mean?

In some translations, I see the term "principalities and powers." To what does this refer? This will not be exhaustive, but for example, consider the KJV's translation of Romans 8:38-39: For I ...
10
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1answer
270 views

Will glory be revealed “in us” or “to us” in Romans 8:18?

Here's Romans 8:18 in ESV: For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us. and here is Romans 8:18 in NKJV: For I ...
10
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1answer
665 views

Pros and Cons of Barth's Commentary on Romans

What are the merits/problems with Karl Barth's commentary on Romans? How much does he treat the details of the Greek? What is his overall hermeneutic of the book? (Please steer away from explaining ...
10
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4answers
158 views

Does Romans 4:17 speak of God calling things into existence?

Rom 4:16-17: That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his offspring — not only to the adherent of the law but also to the one who ...
9
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3answers
467 views

Who were the “poor among the saints” in Jerusalem?

Near the end of Romans there are details about financial relationships between churches. It's never really occurred to me to read it as anything but the face value in English: Romans 15:25-26 (ESV)...
9
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3answers
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How should ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion) be translated in Romans 3:25?

The word ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion) is often translated in Romans 3:25 as "propitiation," "atonement," or "sacrifice [of atonement]" in Western conservative biblical translations. In Hebrews 9:5 it is ...
9
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1answer
154 views

Would the Romans have known what Paul meant by “works of the law”?

In Romans 3:20, Paul writes that no one is δικαιωθήσεται by works of the law (ἔργων νόμου). The only other place I know of the phrase in the New Testament is in Galatians. Does this phrase have use ...
9
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1answer
268 views

In Romans 3:26, why not translate dikaiosunēs as “justice” rather than “righteousness?”

In the following passage there are four different Greek words sharing the same root. Romans 3:23-26 (ESV) for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified by his grace ...
9
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1answer
177 views

Does Romans 2:22 refer to temple robbery or sacrilege?

The word in question is ἱεροσυλέω, a hapax in the NT.1 It’s a compound from ἱερός (temple) and συλάω (rob), and most modern translations indicate that "rob temples" is the appropriate meaning here. ...
9
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1answer
614 views

Translation of Romans 5:12

There is already a question about a possible contradiction between Romans 5:12 and 5:15, but this question focuses exclusively on the translation of 5:12 (which may inadvertently also answer the other ...
9
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1answer
201 views

What is the (grammatical) subject of Romans 10:10?

SBLGNT Rom 10:10 καρδίᾳ γὰρ πιστεύεται εἰς δικαιοσύνην, στόματι δὲ ὁμολογεῖται εἰς σωτηρίαν· In most modern English translations, the grammatical subject is a generic person who believes and ...
9
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1answer
145 views

Why in some translations of Romans 16 there is “amen” twice in the text?

I was reading some crazy theory that New Testament was created by Romans when I stumbled upon something interesting. Author(s) of that theory pointed out that in Letter to Romans there is double "amen"...
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4answers
928 views

In Romans, is there a difference between “children of God” and “sons of God”?

Paul's letter to the Romans calls believers "children of God" and "sons of God." Is there a difference between the two? For instance, are the sons of God mature believers and children of God are all ...
8
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4answers
489 views

Abraham as heir of the world?

In Romans 4:13, Paul states that Abraham "received the promise that he would be heir of the world." But I can't find a direct promise to Abraham of such a thing. He is promised a great deal of ...
8
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4answers
40k views

What does the living sacrifice mean in Romans 12:1?

This passage is a bit vague at first glance: Romans 12:1 (NIV) Therefore, I urge you, brothers and sisters, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing ...
8
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2answers
691 views

Are the 'vessels of wrath' in Romans 9:22 'prepared for' or are they 'preparing themselves for destruction'?

In Romans 9:22, the perfect middle/passive participle κατηρτισμένα could be read in one of two ways: κατηρτισμένα εἰς ἀπώλειαν Middle: 'having prepared themselves for destruction' Passive: 'having ...
7
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2answers
121 views

What happens ‘by nature’ in Romans 2:14?

Romans 2:14: ὅταν γὰρ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν, οὗτοι νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες ἑαυτοῖς εἰσιν νόμος·(NA28) For when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do what the ...
7
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3answers
286 views

Upon whom do we call? Reconciling OT & NT

This question was spurred on by my interaction with another related question on BHSE It appears as though two different names being called upon for Salvation; yet, there is only one whereby we may ...
7
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2answers
141 views

Is the usual translation of “ηὐχόμην” as “I could wish” justified in Romans 9:3?

In the early part of Romans 9, Paul speaks fervently of his hope and anguish concerning his fellow-countrymen, even contemplating losing his own salvation if it could gain theirs: 1I am speaking ...
7
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1answer
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What would be a good translation of 'poiēma'?

Two verses use the Greek ποίημα (G4161): For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what ...
7
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3answers
213 views

What sort of phrasing is “the many” in Romans 5?

Most English translations have something in Romans that is an interesting turn of phrase—at least to my ears it instinctively makes sense but at the same time it in more at home in a carefully worded ...
7
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2answers
920 views

Romans 8:28 translation

Romans 8:28 (NA28) reads: Οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν. There is also a textual variant that explicitly makes 'God' the ...
7
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3answers
360 views

Is the phrase “sin shall no longer be your master” in Romans 6:14 a command?

Paul in his letter to the Romans writes in 6:12-13: Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its evil desires. Do not offer any part of yourself to sin as an instrument ...
7
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3answers
526 views

How was the Apostle Paul a Debtor to the Greeks?

Romans 1:14 I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to the Barbarians; both to the wise, and to the unwise. In what sense was Paul a debtor to these groups of people? I can't find any context in ...
7
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1answer
74 views

Terminology of “goodness” in Romans 7

There are two different words translated "good" or "right" in Romans 7: ἀγαθός and καλός. I'm trying to determine whether there is any distinction intended. I realize that the "basic" sense (or at ...
7
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3answers
239 views

What are “works of the law”?

What is meant by the expression "the works of the law" in the following verses? Romans 3:28 For we consider that a person is justified by faith apart from works of the law Galatians 2:16 who ...
7
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1answer
134 views

Why did Paul use χρηματισμός to introduce his quotation from the Elijah narrative in Romans 11?

Romans 11:4 (NA28 | ESV): ἀλλὰ τί λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ χρηματισμός; κατέλιπον ἐμαυτῷ ἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ. But what is God’s reply to him? (literally: what does the ...
7
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1answer
119 views

Where does “by the mercy shown to you” belong in Romans 11:31?

The translation of Romans 11:31 has me baffled. Starting with v. 30:1 ὥσπερ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ποτε ἠπειθήσατε τῷ θεῷ Just as you were then disobedient to God νῦν δὲ ἠλεήθητε τῇ τούτων ἀπειθείᾳ ...
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5answers
369 views

Is the NLT's version of Romans 13:7 a valid interpretation?

Romans 13:7 (ESV) 7 Pay to all what is owed to them: taxes to whom taxes are owed, revenue to whom revenue is owed, respect to whom respect is owed, honor to whom honor is owed. ...
6
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1answer
447 views

Sentence structure of Romans 12:6

Background If you read Romans 12:6 (part of a very popular passage about "spiritual gifts") from the NASB or any similar translation, you may notice something odd: a good chunk of the verse is not ...
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4answers
5k views

What does Paul mean by “everything that does not come from faith is sin”?

In Romans 14 Paul says: But whoever has doubts is condemned if they eat, because their eating is not from faith; and everything that does not come from faith is sin. (Romans 14:23, NIV) What ...
6
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2answers
244 views

What does “likewise” connect to in Romans 8:26?

I'm trying to understand what the "likewise" is referring to in Romans 8:26. Here is some surrounding context (ESV): For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of ...
6
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1answer
223 views

Romans 5:1 and peace with God

The UBS4 reading of Romans 5:1 is: Δικαιωθέντες οὖν ἐκ πίστεως εἰρήνην ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ (emphasis added) At issue is a textual variation concerning the ...
6
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2answers
144 views

Who is 'we' referring to in Romans 1:5?

Who does Paul refer to when he writes we in verse 5 in the beginning of his epistle to the Romans: Paul, [...] called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God [...] concerning His Son [...] ...