Paul's letter to the church in Rome.

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Why did Paul collect and deliver an offering for the Jerusalem church?

Paul's collection for the Jerusalem church occupies significant portions of his letters (1 Cor 16:1–4; 2 Cor 8:1–9:15; Rom 15:14–32). It is so important to Paul he is willing to face hostility ...
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What does the term “principalities and powers” mean?

In some translations, I see the term "principalities and powers." To what does this refer? This will not be exhaustive, but for example, consider the KJV's translation of Romans 8:38-39: For I ...
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Does Romans 9:5 assert the deity of Christ?

Also known by the more pedestrian title: How should Romans 9:5 be punctuated? Romans 9:5, NA28 (punctuation omitted): ὧν οἱ πατέρες καὶ ἐξ ὧν ὁ Χριστὸς τὸ κατὰ σάρκα ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων θεὸς ...
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Why is δεδικαίωται translated “freed” in many English versions?

Romans 6:7 invariably discusses a believer's freedom from sin in most English translations: NET © (For someone who has died has been freed from sin.) NIV © because anyone who has died has ...
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Why is “christou” translated “God” in KJV Romans 10:17?

I was actually looking up the verse for another question I might ask about rhema (actually rēmatos) "hearing, and hearing by..." but I noticed that though I had memory of it saying "the word of God", ...
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What does Romans 10 have to do with Deuteronomy 30?

Romans 10:6-7 But the righteousness based on faith says, “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’” (that is, to bring Christ down) “or ‘Who will descend into the abyss?’” (that ...
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Romans 8:28 translation

Romans 8:28 (NA28) reads: Οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν. There is also a textual variant that explicitly makes 'God' the ...
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What would be a good translation of 'poiēma'?

Two verses use the Greek ποίημα (G4161): For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what ...
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In Rom. 1:4, what is the meaning of the phrase πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης?

In Rom. 1:4, it is written, And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead: (KJV, 1769) τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ...
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Does Romans 4:17 speak of God calling things into existence?

Rom 4:16-17: That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his offspring — not only to the adherent of the law but also to the one who ...
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Translation of “abba” (Αββα, אבא)

What is the best English translation of abba (Greek: Αββα, Aramaic: אבא) such as in Romans 8:15? What are its senses in the original languages, and are those best captured by father, dad, daddy, or ...
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Translation of Romans 5:12

There is already a question about a possible contradiction between Romans 5:12 and 5:15, but this question focuses exclusively on the translation of 5:12 (which may inadvertently also answer the other ...
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Is 'all-things' literally including any conceivable thing in Rom 8:28?

Paul says: And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. (ESV, Romans 8:28) Does 'all-things' literally include ...
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KJV Romans 12:3 according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith

In the King James Bible Romans 12:3 states ... "according as God hath dealt to every man the measure of faith"... Does this mean his followers were given a different "measure of faith"; that each ...
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Why did Paul use χρηματισμός to introduce his quotation from the Elijah narrative in Romans 11?

Romans 11:4 (NA28 | ESV): ἀλλὰ τί λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ χρηματισμός; κατέλιπον ἐμαυτῷ ἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ. But what is God’s reply to him? (literally: what does the ...
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Is God's will in Romans 12:2 talking about the future sequence of historic events or the pattern of priorities for the audience's lives?

Romans 12:2 states: Do not conform to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is—his good, pleasing ...
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What sort of phrasing is “the many” in Romans 5?

Most English translations have something in Romans that is an interesting turn of phrase—at least to my ears it instinctively makes sense but at the same time it in more at home in a carefully worded ...
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Who subjected the creation to futility in Rom. 8:20-21?

Paul says that creation was subjected to futility in Romans 8:20-21 ESV: For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope that the creation ...
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Terminology of “goodness” in Romans 7

There are two different words translated "good" or "right" in Romans 7: ἀγαθός and καλός. I'm trying to determine whether there is any distinction intended. I realize that the "basic" sense (or at ...
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What does the living sacrifice mean in Romans 12:1?

This passage is a bit vague at first glance: Romans 12:1 (NIV) Therefore, I urge you, brothers and sisters, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing ...
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Does Paul refer to his past or present evil/sin in Romans 7

In Romans 7:19, Paul says this: For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I keep on doing. ESV Is Paul talking about "doing evil" in his present, converted state, or ...
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What does “justify” (δικαιόω) mean in James 2:24, Romans 3:28?

James 2:24 says: You see that a man is justified by works and not by faith alone. Romans 3:28 says: For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law. What are ...
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Does Romans 3:31 refer to the Law or the law?

In Romans 3:21, most English translations distinguish the two uses of νόμος (law) by capitalizing the second: Νυνὶ δὲ χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ πεφανέρωται μαρτυρουμένη ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν ...
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Romans 14:7 - The translation and understanding of «ἑαυτῷ»

In Romans 14:7, it is written, οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἡμῶν ἑαυτῷ ζῇ καὶ οὐδεὶς ἑαυτῷ ἀποθνῄσκει (TR, 1550) My question concerns the reflexive pronoun ἑαυτῷ which occurs twice in this verse, once preceding ...
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What is the meaning of “heap burning coals on his head”?

Paul, in his letter to the Romans, in a longer passage entreating his readers to love one another, quotes from Proverbs 25:21-22: Romans 12:20 NIV On the contrary: "If your enemy is hungry, feed ...
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Was Jesus unaware of Joel 2:32?

Matthew records Jesus saying: Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. On that day many will say to ...
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How should ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion) be translated in Romans 3:25?

The word ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion) is often translated in Romans 3:25 as "propitiation," "atonement," or "sacrifice [of atonement]" in Western conservative biblical translations. In Hebrews 9:5 it is ...
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Who is 'we' referring to in Romans 1:5?

Who does Paul refer to when he writes we in verse 5 in the beginning of his epistle to the Romans: Paul, [...] called as an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God [...] concerning His Son [...] ...
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What are “works of the law”?

What is meant by the expression "the works of the law" in the following verses? Romans 3:28 For we consider that a person is justified by faith apart from works of the law Galatians 2:16 who ...
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In what way has God been found by “those who did not seek” him (Romans 10:20)?

Then Isaiah is so bold as to say, “I have been found by those who did not seek me; I have shown myself to those who did not ask for me.” Romans 10:20 (ESV) According to Paul, in what way ...
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In Romans, is there a difference between “children of God” and “sons of God”?

Paul's letter to the Romans calls believers "children of God" and "sons of God." Is there a difference between the two? For instance, are the sons of God mature believers and children of God are all ...
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How to reconcile Romans 3:28 and James 2:24? [duplicate]

Paul said that justification is not by works but only by faith: For we hold that one is justified by faith apart from works of the law. Romans 3:28 (ESV) This coheres with his other ...
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What does “more than conquerors” mean in Romans 8:37?

Romans 8:37 (NIV) says, "No, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us." All these things refers to trials, whether persecutions, or famine, or death. Against these ...
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If Adam wasn't deceived but Eve (1 Timothy 2:14), then, why did sin enter not by Eve but by Adam (Romans 5:12)? [closed]

If Adam wasn't deceived but Eve (1 Timothy 2:14), then, why did sin enter not by Eve but by Adam (Romans 5:12)? 1 Timothy 2:14 (NIV) And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who ...
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Does Paul believe that God sandbagged the Jews with a law they couldn't keep?

In Galatians 3:10, Paul says: "For all who rely on works of the law are under a curse; for it is written, ‘Cursed be every one who does not abide by all things written in the book of the law, and do ...
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Has the Apostle Paul ever been to Spain?

Paul expresses his intention to go to Spain in Romans 15: 24I hope to see you in passing as I go to Spain, and to be helped on my journey there by you, once I have enjoyed your company for a ...
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Logic and life from the dead in Romans 11

I am having trouble following the logic of Rom 11:11-24 altogether. I would be in a better position if I could get a handle on two verses that seem to be using the same sort of logic. Romans 11, vv. ...
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What are “unnatural” relations or relations “use beyond nature”?

Romans 1:26-27 reads: For this reason God gave them over to dishonorable passions. For their women exchanged the natural sexual relations for unnatural ones, and likewise the men also ...
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Greek text of Romans 8:28

Is there a Greek word for 'things', as in Romans 8:28? And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.
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What did 'adoption' mean to the Romans?

Romans 8 14 For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. 15 For you have not received a spirit of slavery leading to fear again, but you have received a ...
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Is it true that Luther intentionally mistranslated Romans 3:28?

I recently listened to Dr. Scott Hahn's conversion testimony. One thing that really jumped out at me was that Dr. Hahn stated that Luther purposely inserted the German word "allein" (alone) into ...
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What happens ‘by nature’ in Romans 2:14?

Romans 2:14: ὅταν γὰρ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν, οὗτοι νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες ἑαυτοῖς εἰσιν νόμος·(NA28) For when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do what the ...
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Differences in justification method in Romans 3:30

Romans 3:30 εἴπερ εἷς ὁ θεὸς ὃς δικαιώσει περιτομὴν ἐκ πίστεως καὶ ἀκροβυστίαν διὰ τῆς πίστεως.(NA28) since God is one—who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised ...
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In Romans 1:30 what does “Inventors of evil things” imply?

The KJV renders Romans 1:30 as (for context starting verse 28): Rom 1:28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those ...
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What is the meaning of Romans 2:12?

All who sin apart from the law will also perish apart from the law, and all who sin under the law will be judge by the law. (NIV) Basically what I'm asking is: What does it mean to sin Apart from ...
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How can the translation of δοξης as “glory” in Romans 3:23 be justified?

According to Liddell and Scott’s Intermediate Greek Lexicon (also called Middle Liddell) the word δόξα or δοξης can mean: expectation, an opinion, judgment, the opinion which others have of one, ...
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Would the Romans have known what Paul meant by “works of the law”?

In Romans 3:20, Paul writes that no one is δικαιωθήσεται by works of the law (ἔργων νόμου). The only other place I know of the phrase in the New Testament is in Galatians. Does this phrase have use ...
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Does Romans 2:22 refer to temple robbery or sacrilege?

The word in question is ἱεροσυλέω, a hapax in the NT.1 It’s a compound from ἱερός (temple) and συλάω (rob), and most modern translations indicate that "rob temples" is the appropriate meaning here. ...
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Rom. 15:16: What is the meaning of ἱερουργοῦντα?

The Greek text of Rom. 15:16 according to the Textus Receptus states, εἰς τὸ εἶναί με λειτουργὸν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη ἱερουργοῦντα τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ ἵνα γένηται ἡ προσφορὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν ...
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Rom. 9:6: Which translation is more accurate according to the Greek?

Greek text (NA28): Οὐχ οἷον δὲ ὅτι ἐκπέπτωκεν ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ. οὐ γὰρ πάντες οἱ ἐξ Ἰσραὴλ οὗτοι Ἰσραήλ· I am concerned with the latter clause: οὐ γὰρ πάντες οἱ ἐξ Ἰσραὴλ οὗτοι Ἰσραήλ· Which ...