Investigation of the origin of a particular text and the historical context in which it was created. Sometimes called "higher criticism".

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How can we determine the author's intent in listing various ages in Genesis?

I believe some of the ages given in Genesis are historical, but am one of many who happens to think the earliest ages might be symbolic (example source). If this were to be the case that leaves us ...
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3answers
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What was Malachi's meaning in “The sun of righteousness” vs the sun gods of his day?

In Malachi 4:1-3 (Tanach 3:19-21) It is interpreted as 'sun' (Shemesh) and then talks of the 'wings' (Kanaph) using the Hebrew words. When looking at the history and the pagan gods of that day, they ...
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845 views

Can John's Passion chronology be reconciled with that of the Synoptics?

Background: Over the centuries, many readers of the four Gospels have seen significant discrepancies between John and the Synoptics, particularly with regards to chronology. This has led many to ...
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4answers
614 views

What, if any, is the significance of the color of the cord that Rahab hung out of her window?

Joshua 2 describes Rahab's concealment of the Hebrew spies. Vv. 18 Unless, when we enter the land, you have tied this scarlet cord in the window through which you let us down, and unless you have ...
7
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1answer
74 views

What language was Tobit originally written in?

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia entry on Tobit: The text exists in Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Jud├Žo-Aramaic, besides two late Hebrew translations. It concludes: The excellent Greek style ...
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2answers
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What are higher and lower criticism?

What is historical criticism (also known as higher criticism)? What is textual criticism (also known as lower criticism)? How can they help us understand the scriptures? How can they interefere with ...
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What is the difference between historical-grammatical and historical criticism?

The historical-grammatical method and historical criticism are both hermeneutical approaches seeking to uncover the original meaning of the text. What is the difference between the two?