The language in which the Jewish Scriptures (Tanakh) -- or the "Old Testament" in Christian Bibles -- were written.

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What do we learn from the different usages of “aman” and “batach” in the OT?

aman (Strong's H539) and batach (Strong's H982) are both used in the OT to imply some level of trust in God. And he believed (aman:H539) in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness. (...
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Whose נְבָלָ֔ה in Job 42:8?

When translating Job 42:8, most English Bibles are basically the same as ESV: Now therefore take seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job and offer up a burnt offering for yourselves. ...
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386 views

Understanding the appropriation of Psalm 22:2 in the Gospel crucifixion accounts

In Matthew 27:46, the author quotes Jesus, first transliterating his words with Greek letter (NA28 | ESV): ηλι ηλι λεμα σαβαχθανι; Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani? He then translates into Greek: ...
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235 views

How old were the youths mauled by bears?

In 2 Kings 2:23, a group of boys jeers Elisha. Various English translations render this "young boys", "young lads", "boys", "small boys". What kind of range does the Hebrew word behind this group of ...
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What is the purpose of the phrase “all swarming creatures that swarm on the earth” in Genesis 7:21?

Genesis 7:21 reads: וַיִּגְוַ֞ע כָּל־בָּשָׂ֣ר ׀ הָרֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ בָּעֹ֤וף וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבַ֣חַיָּ֔ה וּבְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְכֹ֖ל הָאָדָֽם׃ (WLC) The ESV translation ...
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What is the meaning of “He is to thee a covering of the eyes”(Gen. 20:16)?

Gen. 20:16 records Abimelech's speech to Sarah, "And to Sarah he said, Behold, I have given your brother a thousand pieces of silver: behold, he is to you a covering of the eyes, to all that ...
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In Hebrew, what is this suffix ending that is on the nouns in psalm 103:3?

What is the suffix ending on the words for iniquities and diseases? (the Kauf,chirriq,yod ending) I see it is interpreted as 'thy' but this is not the usual possessive ending for 'your'. (I am a ...
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481 views

Did Job repent?

Many translations of Job 42:6 have something like the NIV: Therefore I despise myself and repent in dust and ashes. However, in the article on Job from The Dictionary for Theological ...
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“A mighty hand” in Exodus 3:19

Exodus 3:19 reads: וַאֲנִ֣י יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יִתֵּ֥ן אֶתְכֶ֛ם מֶ֥לֶךְ מִצְרַ֖יִם לַהֲלֹ֑ךְ וְלֹ֖א בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה׃ (WLC) But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless ...
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Can anyone explain this apparent discrepancy between the Greek and Hebrew versions of Isaiah 30:20-21?

Isaiah 30:21, as translated from the Masoretic text (Hebrew), has been used times to say that God can show us where we need to go. וְאָזְנֶ֙יךָ֙ תִּשְׁמַ֣עְנָה דָבָ֔ר מֵֽאַחֲרֶ֖יךָ לֵאמֹ֑ר זֶ֤ה ...
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Is being “cut off from one's people” the cause or effect of sin?

Neither Jewish nor Christian theologians have a clear consensus on the meaning of the term "cut off from one's people," which appears many times in the Torah, especially in Leviticus. To take one ...
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166 views

What was Noah instructed to make in Genesis 6:16?

Genesis 6:16a: A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above; (KJV) I don’t know what the second part means,1 but I understand "window." Several other English ...
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What was the 'testimony' that Aaron's rod was brought before?

Numbers 17:10 (KJV) And the LORD said unto Moses, Bring Aaron's rod again before the testimony, to be kept for a sign against the rebels; and you shall put away their murmurings from me, that they ...
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What was Malachi's meaning in “The sun of righteousness” vs the sun gods of his day?

In Malachi 4:1-3 (Tanach 3:19-21) It is interpreted as 'sun' (Shemesh) and then talks of the 'wings' (Kanaph) using the Hebrew words. When looking at the history and the pagan gods of that day, they ...
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In Daniel 10:13, is the angelic speaker himself left alone, or does he leave Michael?

While looking at interpretations of Daniel 10:13, I found something that seemed strange in the writings of Theodoret. In most modern translations, the verse reads something like this: The prince ...
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“Those who hate me” in Exodus 20:5

Exodus 20:5b (WLC | ESV) : כִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֞י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵד עֲוֺ֨ן אָבֹ֧ת עַל־בָּנִ֛ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֹׂנְאָֽ֑י for I the LORD your God am a ...
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Psalm 72: “he will …” vs. “may he…”

The NET rendition Psalm 72 differs from most modern translations in translating most verbs in Psalm 72 as future indicative – "he will" – rather than jussive – "may he". For instance,...
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218 views

Happy or blessed in the Psalms?

This problem occurs more than 20 times in the Psalms, but I’ll quote Psalm 1:1, ESV: Blessed (ʾašrê) is the man      who walks not in the counsel of the wicked, &...
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What is the proper translation of Proverbs 22:6?

I've read that the translation, which implies a promise to "right parenting" of Train up a child in the way he should go; even when he is old he will not depart from it. is not ...
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111 views

The meaning and reference to מוג in Amos 9:13 related to that of Amos 9:5

Comparison of Translations A number of major translations (KJV, NKJV, ESV, NASB, NIV, YLT) of Amos 9:5 have מוג (mûḡ) translated as "melt," "melts," or "melteth," but I will give the KJV translation (...
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Does the definite article 'the', occur in front of the name of God in the Hebrew language?

Or is the an interpolation from the English translators of the bible? I'm no Hebrew expert but I'm curious to know how the name was written and read in Hebrew. Was it the YAHWEH or just YAHWEH? ...
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269 views

What did Hosea mean when he said, “ the children of Israel will be without an image? ”

I was reading an answer to a question which was recently asked and there is a reference to the book of Hosea (KJV) and the text reads, Hosea 3:4 King James Version 4 For the children of Israel ...
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Why is Hebrew for 'Lord' (אֲדֹנָ֛י) sometimes translated as 'O Lord'?

I noticed the phrase 'O Lord' several times in Daniel's prayer in Chapter 9. For example: O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive. O Lord, pay attention and act. Delay not, for your own sake, O my God, ...
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Is the death of the pious precious in the eyes of God?

How does one understand the word yakar in Psalms 116:15? Classic Jewish commentators explain the word in context to mean "difficult". However, that is not how is it commonly used nor is it in ...
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What are the four types of “wise men” in Daniel 2?

In Daniel 2, Nebuchadnezzar has dealings with four types of "wise men". NIV and NLT render them "magicians, enchanters, sorcerers and astrologers." The ESV does something rather confusing and renders ...
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What exactly does מִכְנָס (miknac) mean?

Researching a related question, I came across passages like: You shall also make for them linen breeches to cover their nakedness; they shall extend from the hips to the thighs.—Exodus 28:42 ...
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Are nous and pneuma synonymous?

1 Corinthians 2:16 Westcott and Hort 1881 τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, ὃς συνβιβάσει αὐτόν; ἡμεῖς δὲ νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν. Romans 11:34 Westcott and Hort 1881 Τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν ...
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“Surely not” vs “not surely” in Genesis 3:4

Davïd recently provided an explanation of the infinitive absolute in Genesis 2:16, noting the recurrence of the construction in 2:17: "you shall surely die" = inf. abs. (môt, "die") and finite ...
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Who are the “מְבַשְּׂר֗וֹת” in Psalm 68:11?

Who are the "מְבַשְּׂר֗וֹת" in Psalm 68:11 ? I know that the word usually means the bearer of (good) tidings, but why is it in its feminine form ? (some translations translate it as women, ESV "the ...
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Numbers 12:2 - Translation Discrepancy - Did the Lord speak only through Moses?

Numbers 12:2 says: And they said, “Has the Lord indeed spoken only through Moses? Has he not spoken through us also?” And the Lord heard it. The word "through Moses" in Hebrew is בְּמֹשֶׁה֙ or ...
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Exo. 4:16 - “And you shall be to him for [an] elohim” (וְאַתָּה תִּהְיֶה לֹּו לֵאלֹהִים)

In Exo. 4:16, it is written, And he shall speak for you to the people, and he shall be --- he shall be to you for a mouth, and you shall be to him for [an] elohim [אֱלֹהִים] וְדִבֶּר הוּא ...
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Did Jeremiah complain about corrupt torah in Jeremiah 8:8?

A website called "Jesus Believes in Evolution" claims that Jeremiah complained about Torah being corrupted, citing Jeremiah 8:8. However, that is not a common interpretation of the verse. What did ...
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Did the Hebrews lift their right hand to take an oath as some translations of Psalm 144:8 imply?

Do we have any evidence that the Hebrews used to lift their right hand to take an oath, as some translations of Psalm 144:8 imply? The original verse talks of a "right hand of falsehood" (KJV NAS) : ...
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Can “יָתוֹם” designate someone who has lost his father but not his mother?

The word "יָתוֹם" has been translated as "fatherless" by numerous translations (ESV KJV NASB etc, cf. Psalm 109:9), but "orphan" by others (LXX, Vulgate, TNK etc), dictionaries mentioning the two ...
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What is Shesh Mashzar?

The Hebrew words occuring all over the latter parts of Exodus: שֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר mean some sort of fancy fabric. Is it reasonable to think of this as silk? I was thinking this might be derived from "...
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The meaning of “I” in Zechariah 7:3

Zechariah 7:2-3 (with my emphasis) The people of Bethel had sent Sharezer and Regem-Melech, together with their men, to entreat the LORD by asking the priests of the house of the LORD Almighty ...
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What about the eggs? (Deuteronomy 22:6-7)

In the book of Deuteronomy, chapter 22, verses 6 and 7, it reads: 6 If you happen to notice a bird’s nest along the road, whether in a tree or on the ground, and there are chicks or eggs with the ...
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How do we understand “prayer of Jabez” in 1 Chr 4:9-10?

1 Chr 4:9-10 Now Jabez was more honorable than his brothers, and his mother called his name Jabez, saying, “Because I bore him in pain.” And Jabez called on the God of Israel saying, “Oh, that You ...
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Psalms 46 - Be still or relax?

In Psalms 46-10 (Christian versions) or 46:11 (in Jewish versions), is the phrase  הרפו ודעו כי אנכי אלֹהים In most English Bible translations הרפו is translated as Be still . With the ...
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What is the relationship between the prostitute and the loaf of bread in Proverbs 6:26a?

The first phrase of Proverbs 6:26 is translated in several different ways by major translations: for the price of a prostitute is only a loaf of bread [ESV] For on account of a harlot one is ...
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To Jacob a Son or a Son to Jacob in Genesis 30

My son asked me the following question about wording of the verses describing the births of Jacob's sons to Bilhah and Zilpah, as well as Leah's 5th and 6th sons. In the Hebrew, discussing the birth ...
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Does Job intend to see God “in” or “without” his flesh in Job 19:26?

Job 19:26 reads: And after my skin has been thus destroyed, yet in my flesh I shall see God.(ESV) The ESV footnote on the word in says, “or without”. The NET note: This could mean “without ...
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441 views

What is the meaning of Beth Aven (בית און)?

in Joshua 7:2 are EL (אל) and AVEN (און) used in contrast to each other. וישלח יהושע אנשים מיריחו העי אשר עם־בית און מקדם לבית־אל ויאמר אליהם לאמר עלו ורגלו את־הארץ ויעלו האנשים וירגלו את־העי׃ ...
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How do you know when to understand the Hebrew word עלום (olam) as “eternal” or simply a long duration?

In Gen. 9:16, עלום is translated as "everlasting" in reference to the covenant of the rainbow: וְהָיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן וּרְאִיתִיהָ לִזְכֹּר בְּרִית עוֹלָם בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל נֶפֶשׁ ...
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Is there a significance in the usage of the two Hebrew words for the pronoun “I” (ʾănî and ʾānōkî)

In Jonah 1:9, I noticed that both words for the pronoun "I" are used, ʾănî and ʾānōkî. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם עִבְרִי אָנֹכִי וְאֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲנִי יָרֵא אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־...
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330 views

Is the name Israel intended to be ambiguous?

Jacob is renamed Israel by God as explained in this passage: Jacob was left alone. And a man wrestled with him until the break of dawn. When he saw that he had not prevailed against him, he ...
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127 views

Should Genesis 8:10 read “he waited” or “he waited anxiously”?

In Genesis 8:10 the first word in the MT is ויחל. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) suggests emending to וייחל. Everyone seems to accept the BHS and translate this as "waited" just as if the ...
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The correct translation of Isaiah 24:23

In Isaiah 24:23 we have וְחָֽפְרָה הַלְּבָנָה וּבוֹשָׁ֖ה הַֽחַמָּ֑ה The moon shall blush and the sun ashamed where levanah = moon and chammah = sun. But the Septuagint gives καὶ τακήσεται ...
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Translation and historical background of Job 29:6a

Various Translations Job 29:6a is translated various ways. The apparently more literal one's being: (KJV) When I washed my steps with butter (NASB) When my steps were bathed in butter [NET ...
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What is the meaning of mešeq in Genesis 15:2?

In Genesis 15:2, as Abram laments his childlessness to the LORD, he says, and the heir of my house is Eliezer of Damascus (ESV) וּבֶן־מֶ֣שֶׁק בֵּיתִ֔י ה֖וּא דַּמֶּ֥שֶׂק אֱלִיעֶֽזֶר ûb̲en–...