The language in which the Jewish Scriptures (Tanakh) -- or the "Old Testament" in Christian Bibles -- were written.

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Best Septuagint, Masoretic, and Aramaic texts into one English version?

Is there an English version Bible that has the best and oldest translations of the Septuagint and the Masoretic and the Aramaic texts all combined into one translation?
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173 views

Looking for electronic copies of the original Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic texts, and electronic translation/analyses databases to interpret them [closed]

If this question is worded poorly or could be rephrased, please do help me know how best to ask it. I am genuinely seeking the information outlined below, but I'm new here, so please forgive me if I ...
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Where can I find Greek and Hebrew plain text sources? [closed]

Source texts are available with software There are numerous Biblical source texts available (free, in "public domain") for download into Bible software type programs. Where else are they available? ...
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Is Elijah fed by ravens or Arabians?

A couple of commentaries mention that scholars dispute that Elijah was fed by ravens and instead think the word in 1 Kings 17:4-6 ought to be translated black arabs or perhaps "Orbites, i.e., ...
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Where was Uzziah buried?

2 Chronicles 26:23 (ESV) reads: And Uzziah slept with his fathers, and they buried him with his fathers in the burial field that belonged to the kings, for they said, “He is a leper.” And Jotham ...
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How old was Samuel when Hannah took him to the temple?

In 1 Samuel 1:24 we read: After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of ...
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What else can “Fifteen cubits from above” in Gen 7:20 mean?

When translating Genesis, I took pains to preserve the implied flat-Earth cosmology that a naive reading suggests. One of the places where this made a big difference is in the story of Noah. Noah is ...
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Is Satan one of the “sons of God”?

In the framing story of Job, we read about הַשָּׂטָן (ha-Satan) and בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים (ben 'elohiym) appearing before God: Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves ...
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Does Psalm 72:13 mean “lives” or “souls?”

Young's Literal Translation and KJV say in Psalm 72:13 that Solomon will save the "souls" of the needy. Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition, NIV say Solomon will "save the needy from death." ...
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131 views

What is the meaning of “He is to thee a covering of the eyes”(Gen. 20:16)?

Gen. 20:16 records Abimelech's speech to Sarah, "And to Sarah he said, Behold, I have given your brother a thousand pieces of silver: behold, he is to you a covering of the eyes, to all that ...
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31 views

Does Hebrew ever give masculine modifiers to feminine subjects? [closed]

Does Hebrew ever give masculine modifiers to grammatically feminine subjects? (Yes or No - and where). For example, "Julie gave money [he gave]". I'm just wondering if this exists, as I just ...
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What is the purpose of the phrase “all swarming creatures that swarm on the earth” in Genesis 7:21?

Genesis 7:21 reads: וַיִּגְוַ֞ע כָּל־בָּשָׂ֣ר ׀ הָרֹמֵ֣שׂ עַל־הָאָ֗רֶץ בָּעֹ֤וף וּבַבְּהֵמָה֙ וּבַ֣חַיָּ֔ה וּבְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ וְכֹ֖ל הָאָדָֽם׃ (WLC) The ESV translation ...
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Psalm 72: “he will …” vs. “may he…”

The NET rendition Psalm 72 differs from most modern translations in translating most verbs in Psalm 72 as future indicative – "he will" – rather than jussive – "may he". For ...
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3answers
666 views

Concealing & revealing in Proverbs 25:2

My question is about the intended meaning of this proverb: It is the glory of God to conceal a matter, But the glory of kings is to search out a matter. --Prov. 25:2, NASB I see three ...
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What is the meaning of the Hebrew word that is translated in Genesis 7:21 as creeping? Does it also mean “swarming?”

What is the meaning for the original Hebrew word which KJV translates as "creeping?" in Genesis 7:21 The NASB translates it as "swarming." Some say the NASB is more accurate, others favor the KJV. ...
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3answers
260 views

Why isn't the Tetragrammaton used in Exodus 3:14?

I do not know Hebrew, but I've always been under the impression that the Tetragrammaton is a literal "I AM". Strongs: 1961 אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה http://biblehub.com/hebrew/1961.htm vs Strongs 3068 יְהֹוָה ...
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2answers
110 views

How justified is the NIV's translation of 'tsidqenu' as ‘Our Righteous Savior' in Jeremiah 23:6 and 33:16?

Jeremiah 23:6b in the NIV (2011 edition) reads: "This is the name by which he will be called: The LORD Our Righteous Savior." The root form (the masculine noun 'tsedeq') is customarily ...
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Is there an English equivalent for Nephilim of Genesis 6:4?

Genesis 6:4 (NIV)Emphasis added The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes ...
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3answers
682 views

Is the translation “rib” for the Hebrew צֵלָע (*tsela*) in Genesis 2:22 justified?

Why is it that Biblical translators choose to translate the Hebrew word צֵלָע (tsela) as "rib" when referring to the formation of Eve from Adam in Genesis 2:22? Never is this word translated as rib ...
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4answers
302 views

Numeral system in the time of the Genesis

Genesis 41:49 (King James Version) And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left numbering; for it was without number. Without being a perfect equivalent, this ...
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According to the original Hebrew, how did Moses's Red sea crossing look?

I heard a different viewpoint on the depiction of the whole red sea crossing than I am used to, and now I am wondering what the correct interpretation is. Instead of the sea splitting open and ...
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Why is Israel referred to with a male pronoun in Jeremiah 31:10?

“Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, and declare it in the coastlands far away; say, ‘He who scattered Israel will gather him, and will keep him as a shepherd keeps his flock.’ ...
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Different meanings of 'Earth' in Genesis 1

The word הארץ ('the earth') appears a very large number of times in the six-day creation account spanning Genesis 1:1 to 2:1. It seems clear to me that the usages in 1:1 and 2:1 are special - the ...
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What is the meaning of mešeq in Genesis 15:2?

In Genesis 15:2, as Abram laments his childlessness to the LORD, he says, and the heir of my house is Eliezer of Damascus (ESV) וּבֶן־מֶ֣שֶׁק בֵּיתִ֔י ה֖וּא דַּמֶּ֥שֶׂק אֱלִיעֶֽזֶר ...
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Why is Job referred to by the feminine pronoun in Job 1:15?

טו וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם, וְאֶת-הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי-חָרֶב; וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק-אֲנִי לְבַדִּי, לְהַגִּיד לָךְ. This verse, Job 1:15, ends with "and I alone escaped to tell you". The "you" ...
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Why is Jeremiah 31:9 translated as a third person plural?

In the אֽוֹלִיכֵם֙ of Jeremiah 31:9, translated as "I will make them walk by brooks of water" (ESV), the pronominal suffix after "make them walk" sure looks like a second person masculine plural, not ...
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101 views

What is stronger: רשע (rasha`, “wicked”) or חטא (chatta', “sinner”) in the Hebrew Bible?

I have a question about the following words: רשע (rasha`), generally translated as "wicked" or "ungodly". 263 occurences in the OT. חטא (chatta'), generally translated as "sinner". 256 occurences ...
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"My shield is with God”?

Psalm 7:10(11)1a: ‏מָֽגִנִּ֥י עַל־אֱלֹהִ֑ים (BHS) My shield is with God (ESV) Elsewhere God is described as being one’s shield (2 Sam 22:3 // Ps 18:3; Ps 28:7) but with feels odd. It’s also ...
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1answer
66 views

Could foreign peoples (non Israelite) serve as priests in the temple?

In reading Isaiah 56:6,7, it seems to indicate the allowance of foreign peoples serving as priests at the temple. This, it seems, would be in direct contradiction to the Levitical priesthood. The word ...
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56 views

But flesh with its breath its blood shall not be eaten

Gen 9:4 אך בשר בנפשו דמו לא תאכלו In English, But flesh in its breath its blood shall not be eaten What does the verse grammatically mean? Let me propose some options, which need not ...
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2answers
923 views

Sacrificing and kissing calves in Hosea 13:2

Reading Hosea 13:2 ESV, I found myself confused: And now they sin more and more, and make for themselves metal images, idols skillfully made of their silver, all of them the work of craftsmen. It ...
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847 views

On what basis is the name “Ephraim” given the etymology of “ash heap”?

The name Ephraim seems to commonly be given two etymologies, one referring to an "ash heap" and the other referring to "fruitfulness". Example I can understand the fruitfulness etymology linking ...
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2answers
483 views

How is the Septuagint interpretation of Psalms 40:6 reconciled with the Hebrew text?

The ancient Hebrew and Greek versions of Psalms 40:6 are quite different. The Hebrew version says 'my ears you have opened' whilst the Greek LXX has 'a body you restored to me'. Furthermore in Hebrews ...
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326 views

How does one interpret the phrase “in the water under the earth” in Exodus 20:4?

In Exodus 20:4 there is a phrase בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ that is often translated as "in the water under the earth". What location is this a reference to?
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How did Biblical translators decide on cypress for the type of wood in Noah's ark?

Reading from Genesis 6:14 (NRSV): Make yourself an ark of cypress wood; make rooms in the ark, and cover it inside and out with pitch. There is a note at "cypress" which says: Meaning of ...
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145 views

Why do translations use “wild ox”?

Several translations frequently speak of the "wild ox." Where I come from, Ox is not the natural ("wild") state of such creatures. Oxen are normally relatively docile, castrated animals, which doesn't ...
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What translation philosophies have cause such a wide variation in translation of *tachash* skins?

In Exodus (e.g.: 26:14), we learn one of the coverings for the tabernacle is to be made of "תחש" (tachash) skins. The translation of this term appears to be especially difficult or contentious as ...
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What does “Put the wood in order” mean in 1 Kings 18:33?

Several translation of 1 Kings 18:33 (ESV, RSV, KJV, etc.) say "And he put the wood in order..." What was the "order" spoken of here? Similarly, Genesis 22:9 also speaks of putting wood "in order" ...
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What is the “Water” of Genesis 1:2?

We read in the creation account: The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.—Genesis 1:2 ...
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1answer
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Does Exodus 22:28 call for child sacrifice?

In Genesis, we see a motif of first-born sons being overly aggressive and ambitious. Kain slays Abel out of a jealous wrath. Firstborn Esau and Jacob have a long-running rivalry that ends with Jacob ...
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“Blessed be the glory of the LORD from its place”

Ezekiel 3:12-13a (BHS | ESV): וַתִּשָּׂאֵ֣נִי ר֔וּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַ֣ע אַחֲרַ֔י ק֖וֹל רַ֣עַשׁ גָּד֑וֹל בָּר֥וּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָ֖ה מִמְּקוֹמֽוֹ׃ וְק֣וֹל ׀ כַּנְפֵ֣י הַחַיּ֗וֹת מַשִּׁיקוֹת֙ אִשָּׁ֣ה ...
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6answers
6k views

Does the Bible mention unicorns?

I was reading Psalm 22 (from this question) and I found this verse: Psalms 22:21 (KJV) Save me from the lion's mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns. When I switched ...
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410 views

The name of God in ancient manuscripts

I came across the following from an unofficial/unverified source: Yahu An alternative spelling and pronunciation of Yahweh, found (spelled YHW) on a circa 800 B.C.E. ostracon from Kuntillet ...
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What does “Under the Sun” mean in Ecclesiastes?

I noticed that the Teacher uses the phrase "under the sun" more than 20 times in Ecclesiastes. I have always understood this to simply mean "on earth" as The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament ...
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142 views

Genesis 2:10 - Why are the verbs and the participle translated into English past tense?

The Hebrew text of Gen. 2:10 states, וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים Several words capture my attention: יֹצֵא which is conjugated ...
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The meaning and reference to מוג in Amos 9:13 related to that of Amos 9:5

Comparison of Translations A number of major translations (KJV, NKJV, ESV, NASB, NIV, YLT) of Amos 9:5 have מוג (mûḡ) translated as "melt," "melts," or "melteth," but I will give the KJV translation ...
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974 views

How should graded numerical parallelism in Hebrew poetry be understood?

In Hebrew poetry, especially proverbs, we see examples of monotonically increasing numbers that set up parallels. For instance Proverbs 30:15 (NJPS): The leech has two daughters, “Give!” and ...
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1answer
106 views

Why does Gen 35:26 state that the sons of Jakob were born in Paddam-Aram?

The end of Gen 35:26 reads ... These are the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan-aram. Among these sons is Benjamin (V.24), who was not born in Paddam-aram, but on the way to Ephrath ...
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3answers
255 views

Do Proverbs 6:16 and Proverbs 30:18 contain a figure of speech? [duplicate]

If you look at Proverbs 6:16 and Proverbs 30:18, they are written in a certain format: "There are six things the LORD hates--no, seven things he detests" "There are three things that are too ...
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0answers
35 views

“For the sake of your ḥesed” in the Psalms

Psalm 6:5[4]:1 ‏שׁוּבָה יְהוָה חַלְּצָה נַפְשִׁ֑י הוֹשִׁיעֵנִי לְמַעַן חַסְדֶּֽךָ׃ (BHS) Turn, LORD, and deliver me;       save me because of your unfailing ...