The language in which the Jewish Scriptures (Tanakh) -- or the "Old Testament" in Christian Bibles -- were written.

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Song of Solomon 5:16, the signification of “”im“”

In Song of Solomon 5:16, the verse in Hebrew transliteration is: ḥikkōw mamṯaqqîm wəḵullōw maḥămaddîm zeh ḏōwḏî wəzeh rê‘î, bənōwṯ yərūšālim חִכּוֹ֙ מַֽמְתַקִּ֔ים וְכֻלּ֖וֹ מַחֲמַדִּ֑ים זֶ֤ה ...
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Does the Hebrew word “olam“ mean “forever” in Leviticus 23:41?

Several passages refer to keeping a feast as a statute forever. For instance, Exodus 12:14 reads: “This day shall be for you a memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord; ...
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Does the original Hebrew support the NLT of Genesis 6:3?

Genesis 6:3 refers to when God set humans' lifespans to (approximately) 120 years. However, the NLT (the translation I prefer) has a slightly different translation for the 120-years part. Genesis ...
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What did the 70 elders see, if man can't see God and live?

Exodus 24:10 says, of the 70 elders who went up on the mountain with Moshe: וַיִּרְאוּ, אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל and they saw the God of Israel Meanwhile, Exodus 33:20 says, when Moshe asks ...
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Hosea 6.7: “like men”, “like Adam”, or “at Adam”?

I was doing some study on Adam, and came across Hosea 6.7. The Hebrew, for reference: והמה כאדם עברו ברית שם בגדו בי׃ I was already aware different translations choose to render כאדם either as '...
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מָקוֹר - Why would we interpret 'maqor' as a “fountain”?

The Hebrew term maqor / מָקוֹר (Heb. 4726) has 18 occurrences in the biblical text, and is traditionally rendered 'fountain' in most passages, from KJV (below) right through ESV and HCSB: Psalm 36:...
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What is the best understanding of חָמָס in Isaiah 53:9?

Isaiah 53:9 And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth. Most major translations I've ...
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In Exodus 34:33, did Moses speak with the Israelites veiled or unveiled?

The Hebrew text of Exo. 34:33 states, לג וַיְכַל מֹשֶׁה מִדַּבֵּר אִתָּם וַיִּתֵּן עַל פָּנָיו מַסְוֶה One website sites, So, did Moses speak to the Israelites with a veil upon his face or ...
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What is the “Water” of Genesis 1:2?

We read in the creation account: The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.—Genesis 1:2 (...
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In Genesis 2:22, what is the significance of the verb וַיִּבֶן (lemma: בָּנָה)?

The Hebrew text of Gen. 2:22 states, כב וַיִּבֶן יַהְוֶה אֱלֹהִים אֶת הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מִן הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל הָאָדָם which may be translated into English as, And Yahveh ...
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How does one interpret the phrase “in the water under the earth” in Exodus 20:4?

In Exodus 20:4 there is a phrase בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ that is often translated as "in the water under the earth". What location is this a reference to?
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Angel or messenger?

Often, it is clear from context whether מלאך and αγγελος refer to a human messenger or an angelic messenger. For example, if a מלאך or αγγελος is sent by a human, then the messenger is likely human. ...
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In 2 Samuel 2:9, why did the author use two different prepositions, אֶל and עַל, to express what appears to be the same thought (i.e., “over”)?

The Hebrew text of 2 Sam. 2:9 states, ט וַיַּמְלִכֵהוּ אֶל הַגִּלְעָד וְאֶל הָאֲשׁוּרִי וְאֶל יִזְרְעֶאל וְעַל אֶפְרַיִם וְעַל בִּנְיָמִן וְעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל כֻּלֹּה which is translated into ...
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From the time what came to be? - Isaiah 48:16

I'm just not sure what the it is referring to here, or is it implied? Is it connected to wherever there is? Isaiah 48:16 (ESV) Draw near to me, hear this: from the beginning I have not ...
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In 1 Kings 6:22, what is an accurate translation of הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲֽשֶׁר לַדְּבִיר?

The King James Version translates 1 Kings 6:22 as, And the whole house he overlaid with gold, until he had finished all the house: also the whole altar that was by the oracle he overlaid with gold....
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Summary of textual variations and history of Judges 6:12-16?

In Judges 6:12,14,16 we have the angel of the LORD appear to Gideon, but then he is just referred to by LORD, that is, just the tetragrammaton. 12 And the angel of the LORD[?] appeared to him and ...
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“Those who hate me” in Exodus 20:5

Exodus 20:5b (WLC | ESV) : כִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֞י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵד עֲוֺ֨ן אָבֹ֧ת עַל־בָּנִ֛ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֹׂנְאָֽ֑י for I the LORD your God am a ...
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Why does the King James have “turtle” in Song of Solomon 2:12?

Ernie Harwell was famous for starting his first baseball broadcast of the Detroit Tigers spring with the following quote: Song of Solomon 2:11-12 (KJV) 11 For, lo, the winter is past, the rain ...
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Does “first” demand a “second” in Zechariah 12:7?

Does the Hebrew for "first" in Zechariah 12:7 carry the same logical implication we would apply in English that there must then be, at least, a second? “And the LORD will give salvation to the ...
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To what extent was the LORD “sought” and “found” in Isaiah 65:1?

Isaiah 65:1a נִדְרַ֙שְׁתִּי֙ לְל֣וֹא שָׁאָ֔לוּ I was ready to be sought by those who did not ask for me; נִמְצֵ֖אתִי לְלֹ֣א בִקְשֻׁ֑נִי I was ready to be found by those who did not ...
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Should Genesis 8:10 read “he waited” or “he waited anxiously”?

In Genesis 8:10 the first word in the MT is ויחל. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) suggests emending to וייחל. Everyone seems to accept the BHS and translate this as "waited" just as if the ...
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Did the New Testament Writers Rely on the Hebrew Text?

Related: - Re. The Passover: Why do Christians Assert the Calendar Day Began at Sunset? 1. Question - a Reference Request Are there any textual evidences, (in the New Testament, and contemporary ...
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Is the translation “rib” for the Hebrew צֵלָע (*tsela*) in Genesis 2:22 justified?

Why is it that Biblical translators choose to translate the Hebrew word צֵלָע (tsela) as "rib" when referring to the formation of Eve from Adam in Genesis 2:22? Never is this word translated as rib ...
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1answer
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What is the remnant of Edom?

Amos states: “In that day I will raise up the booth of David that is fallen and repair its breaches, and raise up its ruins and rebuild it as in the days of old, that they may ...
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How is Jerusalem called after the name of God?

In Daniel 9:19 we read O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God, because thy city and thy people are called by thy name." I can see how if ...
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What was the pillar of fire that led the Israelites through the desert? [closed]

I'm just curious, does anyone have any idea as to what the physical nature of the pillar of fire in Exodus 13:21-22 was? I've always imagined it as a vortex of fire (like a tornado but with fire) ...
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How does the act of “foot washing” lead to the act of “sexual intercourse”?

In 2 Samuel chapter 11,after King David had slept with Uriah's wife Bathsheba we read in 11:5, The woman conceived and sent word to David,saying,"I am pregnant." David's response to the news ...
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756 views

Written language during the time of Moses?

What would the written language have been like during the time of Moses (I'm assuming that to be around 1400 BCE), and what kind of material would they have been writing on - was it all on stone ...
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What is the meaning of the repetition of “holy” in Isaiah 6:3?

In Isaiah 6:3, the seraphim call one to another, saying: Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!” (ESV) קָדֹ֧ושׁ׀ קָדֹ֛ושׁ קָדֹ֖ושׁ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאֹ֑ות ...
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In 1 Kings 19:2, could Jezebel have been putting a death hex on Elijah?

In 1 Kings 19:2, the passage says: 2 Then Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah, saying, “So let the gods do to me, and more also, if I do not make your life as the life of one of them by tomorrow ...
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Is there an English equivalent for Nephilim of Genesis 6:4?

Genesis 6:4 (NIV)Emphasis added The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of ...
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Are nous and pneuma synonymous?

1 Corinthians 2:16 Westcott and Hort 1881 τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, ὃς συνβιβάσει αὐτόν; ἡμεῖς δὲ νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν. Romans 11:34 Westcott and Hort 1881 Τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν ...
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How many people were involved in the Exodus?

According to Numbers 1:20-46 (NJPS): They totaled as follows: The descendants of Reuben, Israel’s first-born, the registration of the clans of their ancestral house, as listed by name, head by ...
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Did God say that Adam will die on the same day he ate the fruit?

but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” (Genesis 2:17, NKJV) but you must not eat from the tree of the ...
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Can “שָׂנֵא” mean “rejected”?

I have posted a question about the translation of μισέω in Romans 9:15, which quotes Malachi 1:2-3. To further dig into the question of whether "rejected" is a correct translation, I would like to ...
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THE burning bush: why the definite article?

In the Hebrew, the first time the burning bush appears it has an article. Literally this is translated by "the bush" (as in Young's Literal Translation). However, most common translations translate ...
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Genesis 22: Jehovah Jireh

Title spelled for recognizability. Forgive me. In Gen 22:14, Abraham names the place where the LORD provided a sacrifice in place of Isaac, calling it: יְהוָ֣ה ׀ יִרְאֶ֑ה אֲשֶׁר֙ יֵאָמֵ֣ר ...
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How many daughters did Lot have, two or four?

When we read the KJV we get the impression that Lot possibly had daughters living with their husbands in Sodom, in addition to two unmarried daughters still living at home: "And Lot went out, and ...
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Was there some connection between barley bread and Gideon in the mind of the Midianites?

Before attacking the Midianite camp, Gideon does a little spying: When Gideon came, behold, a man was telling a dream to his comrade. And he said, “Behold, I dreamed a dream, and behold, a cake of ...
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Is El-Shaddai “Sky God” where Sky==Breasts?

I found the name "El-Shaddai" mysterious, but while going over Genesis, found the following passage (Gen 49) Wikisource translation From the god of your fathers, and he will help you, and the ...
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Questions concerning Zec. 2:11

Here is the Hebrew text of Zec. 2:11 (2:15 Masoretic): וְנִלְווּ גוֹיִם רַבִּים אֶל יהוה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְהָיוּ לִי לְעָם וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְתוֹכֵךְ וְיָדַעַתְּ כִּי יהוה צְבָאוֹת שְׁלָחַנִי ...
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Meaning behind Job's three daughters' names? Job 42:14

And he called the name of the first daughter Jemimah, and the name of the second Keziah, and the name of the third Keren-happuch. (Job 42:14) These are his three new daughters after God restored ...
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In Isaiah 14:12 did the King James translator make a mistake using the term Lucifer to describe morning star?

KJV Isaiah 14:12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! NRSV Isaiah 14:12 How you are fallen ...
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Was the LXX used in Palestine in the First Century?

It is recorded that Jesus read from the Septuagint in the synagogue during His ministry. As an example, Luke 4:16-20 has Jesus reading from an Isaiah scroll in a synagogue, and the text provided ...
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What is the significance of Methuselah's name?

I've heard that Methuselah's name was given to him by Enoch in response to a prophecy concerning the flood. Since he seems to have died in the year of the flood (according to the Masoretic and ...
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What is the likely way in which ancient Hebrews would have understood “raqiya” in Gen 1:6?

In Genesis 1:6, the word "firmament" (Hebrew: raqiya) is referring to what we call the sky. It separates the waters below (oceans, lakes, rivers, etc) from the waters above (where the rain comes from)...
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Is “kill” a valid translation for Exodus 20:13 (Thou shalt not kill)?

Exodus 20:13 (KJV) Thou shalt not kill. Many political statements have been made about this verse. This translation has been used by many to support their pacifist desires. However, it seems ...
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4answers
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Does Moses Speak Broken Hebrew?

When translating Exodus, I became intimately familiar with every sentence (it is really a tremendous form of close reading), and I noticed something amazing. The cases where Moses speaks Hebrew, he ...
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1answer
296 views

Not good for Adam or Mankind to be alone? Genesis 2:18

We read in Genesis 2:18 (ESV) Then the LORD God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him.” I'm not a Hebrew scholar by any means, but what little ...
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Genesis 3:21 - What Type of Garments Were Made? [closed]

After eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the first man and woman had their eyes opened; knew they were naked; took fig leaves and sewed them together to make aprons: And the ...