The language in which the Jewish Scriptures (Tanakh) -- or the "Old Testament" in Christian Bibles -- were written.

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3
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1answer
34 views

Are the divine name and its contracted form somehow unique or are they truly inter-changeable?

According to Strongs H3050, there are 48 occurrences in the Hebrew Bible where God's name is rendered as יָהּ (Yah). Most of these are found in the Psalms. This suggests it is a poetic form. ...
11
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4answers
4k views

Who or what is Rahab in Job?

The most famous Rahab in the Bible is the prostitute of Jericho who hid the two Hebrew spies in Joshua 2. But there seems to be a different Rahab introduced in Job: “God will not turn back his ...
1
vote
1answer
159 views

What nuance does “before my face” convey in Exodus 20:3?

What are the full implications of "before my face" in Exodus 20:3? Exodus 20:3 (BHS) לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃ Exodus 20:3 (NKJV) 3 “You shall have no other gods ...
0
votes
3answers
650 views

Accurate translations of original scripts/text

I've been on what is becoming quite the mission to find the most accurate translation of Daniel 9:23-27 (or the (Tenach/OT) bible in general) of the most original scripts/text available. It seems like ...
3
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1answer
229 views

Deliver us from “evil” or “the evil one” – help from the Semitists?

Matthew 6:13 ESV And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. But NIV And do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. UBS5 καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς ...
2
votes
3answers
250 views

Why does the ESV use “surely” in Genesis 2:16 when all others say “freely”?

Someone has brought it to my attention that the ESV deviates from all other English translations in Genesis 2:16 by changing "freely" to "surely." The ESV is heavily endorsed by Calvinist pastors, so ...
5
votes
2answers
388 views

Assessments of the evidence for the “Gap Theory” reading of Genesis 1:1-2?

Ever since the emergence of an understanding of "geological time" in the 18th Century, there has been a perceived tension with the six-day account of creation in Genesis 1 -- at least, if those "days" ...
23
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5answers
2k views

Is “kill” a valid translation for Exodus 20:13 (Thou shalt not kill)?

Exodus 20:13 (KJV) Thou shalt not kill. Many political statements have been made about this verse. This translation has been used by many to support their pacifist desires. However, it seems ...
10
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1answer
2k views

How does the act of “foot washing” lead to the act of “sexual intercourse”?

In 2 Samuel chapter 11,after King David had slept with Uriah's wife Bathsheba we read in 11:5, The woman conceived and sent word to David,saying,"I am pregnant." David's response to the news ...
4
votes
1answer
62 views

Accurate translation of הִתְעֵתֶים in Jeremiah 42:20

Jeremiah 42:20 (BHS): כִּ֣י הִתְעֵתֶים בְּנַפְשֹֽׁותֵיכֶם֒ כִּֽי־אַתֶּ֞ם שְׁלַחְתֶּ֣ם אֹתִ֗י אֶל־יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר הִתְפַּלֵּ֣ל בַּעֲדֵ֔נוּ אֶל־יְהוָ֖ה אֱלֹהֵ֑ינוּ וּכְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר ...
4
votes
2answers
137 views

“Surely not” vs “not surely” in Genesis 3:4

Davïd recently provided an explanation of the infinitive absolute in Genesis 2:16, noting the recurrence of the construction in 2:17: "you shall surely die" = inf. abs. (môt, "die") and finite ...
11
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5answers
10k views

What does “Under the Sun” mean in Ecclesiastes?

I noticed that the Teacher uses the phrase "under the sun" more than 20 times in Ecclesiastes. I have always understood this to simply mean "on earth" as The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament ...
6
votes
3answers
323 views

Whose words were kept from falling to the ground?

I have two different translations of 1 Samuel 3:19. The 2011 NIV renders the sentence: The LORD was with Samuel as he grew up, and he let none of Samuel’s words fall to the ground. However, I ...
13
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6answers
13k views

Which 'modern' English translation of the Bible is considered the 'closest' or most accurate translation?

Which 'modern' (anything inclusive of King James Version to date) English translation of the Bible is considered the 'closest' or most accurate translation from the original Hebrew & Greek texts? ...
0
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0answers
48 views

What version of the Bible is translated closest to or directly from the original languages of the texts? [duplicate]

I have for some time now looked at many versions of the Bible to come to the conclusion that most of the translations that try to interpret the text from the original Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek ...
10
votes
2answers
169 views

Different meanings of 'Earth' in Genesis 1

The word הארץ ('the earth') appears a very large number of times in the six-day creation account spanning Genesis 1:1 to 2:1. It seems clear to me that the usages in 1:1 and 2:1 are special - the ...
7
votes
1answer
97 views

Does Isaiah 7:14 indicate that the young woman is already pregnant?

Isaiah 7:14b (WLC) הִנֵּ֣ה הָעַלְמָ֗ה הָרָה֙ וְיֹלֶ֣דֶת בֵּ֔ן וְקָרָ֥את שְׁמֹ֖ו עִמָּ֥נוּ אֵֽל׃ Very roughly, "Behold, the-young-woman [to-be] pregnant and-bearing son..."1 The majority of ...
5
votes
1answer
104 views

Is “stars” the object of “made” or “rule” in Genesis 1:16?

Genesis 1:16 says (according to the Complete Jewish Bible translation) "God made the two great lights — the larger light to rule the day and the smaller light to rule the night — and the stars." My ...
7
votes
2answers
169 views

Written language during the time of Moses?

What would the written language have been like during the time of Moses (I'm assuming that to be around 1400 BCE), and what kind of material would they have been writing on - was it all on stone ...
2
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0answers
51 views

Did the Preacher apply his heart or his mind to the task?

Ecclesiates 1:13 I applied my mind to study and to explore by wisdom all that is done under the heavens. What a heavy burden God has laid on mankind! [NIV] Ecclesiates 1:13 And I gave my heart ...
4
votes
2answers
97 views

How are contractions formed in Hebrew and how does YHWH become Yah?

Psalm 68:4 expresses the name of God as Yah. This seems obvious related to the name of God as he expounded it to Moses in Exodus 3:14. We also see the two directly connected in passages such as Psalm ...
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1answer
61 views

What shape was Noah's Ark?

Some argue for a box shape while others argue for something that looked more like a ship. And the recent discovery according to 4000-year-old Mesopotamian tablet (consisting of sixty lines in ...
7
votes
3answers
139 views

Hebrew Text Indicative of a Local or Global Flood?

I am trying to look for hints in the text of Genesis regarding Noah's account. There has been plenty of debate on whether the flood described is local or global. The usual line of thought is that the ...
2
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0answers
47 views

Hosea 6.7: “like men”, “like Adam”, or “at Adam”?

I was doing some study on Adam, and came across Hosea 6.7. The Hebrew, for reference: והמה כאדם עברו ברית שם בגדו בי׃ I was already aware different translations choose to render כאדם either as ...
6
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9answers
2k views

Were the Nephilim in Genesis 6 aliens?

Could Genesis 6:1-4 be talking about aliens? (ESV): When man began to multiply on the face of the land and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of man were ...
7
votes
1answer
243 views

In Genesis 20:13, why is elohim with a plural verb translated God rather than gods?

Genesis 20:13 (ESV) And when God caused me to wander… (WLC): ויהי כאשר התעו אתי אלהימ Another question asked about the translation of אלהימ (‘elohim) using the singular God. The answers ...
7
votes
6answers
2k views

Before the Tower of Babel did all speak Hebrew as the original human language?

I find it fascinating that rabbinic literature suggests that Hebrew was the original human language. I have seen Christian authors also argue the same. For example, from the Jewish Encyclopedia: ...
12
votes
2answers
141 views

“Black but beautiful” or “Black and beautiful” in Song of Songs?

Song of Songs (or "Song of Solomon") 1:5 begins as follows in the Hebrew: ... שְׁחוֹרָ֤ה אֲנִי֙ וְֽנָאוָ֔ה בְּנ֖וֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם šĕḥôrâ ʾănî wĕnāʾwâ bĕnôt yĕrûšālāyim ... And is often ...
18
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4answers
720 views

Does Gen 1:1 refer to day 1 or the entire 6 days of creation?

A natural reading of Gen 1:1 with it's immediate context is that it is part of the first day of creation 1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was without form and ...
9
votes
4answers
213 views

What does chamushim (“fifties”) mean in Exodus 13:18?

It is easy to imagine that this word would suggest "by fifties" or, more generally, in large groups, or even "in an regimented way like an army," but on what grounds do so many English versions turn ...
6
votes
3answers
543 views

What basis do we have for defining Sabbatismos in Hebrews 4:9?

The word, Sabbatismos occurs in the Greek NT only once. Strongest Strong's defines it as Sabbath rest; Sabbath observance. Thayer's/Strong's defines it as a Sabbath keeping. Various English ...
33
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4answers
3k views

Does the Bible mention unicorns?

I was reading Psalm 22 (from this question) and I found this verse: Psalms 22:21 (KJV) Save me from the lion's mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns. When I switched ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

“Under heaven” or “under the heavens” on day three of creation?

The ESV translation uses the terms "Heaven" and "the heavens" in verses 8 and 9 of Genesis 1 in a way I find confusing: 8And God called the expanse Heaven. And there was evening and there was ...
9
votes
2answers
166 views

How many daughters did Lot have, two or four?

When we read the KJV we get the impression that Lot possibly had daughters living with their husbands in Sodom, in addition to two unmarried daughters still living at home: "And Lot went out, and ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the meaning of “encircled” in Jeremiah 31:22?

Yesterday, I read Jeremiah 31:21-22 (ESV): “Set up road markers for yourself; make yourself guideposts; consider well the highway, the road by which you went. Return, O virgin Israel, ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Numbers 22:22 Who sent the angel of the LORD to stop Balaam?

Did Satan stand against Balaam on his own zealous volition or did the LORD send him to stop Balaam? ויחר אף אלהים hot was nostril/wrath of G-d כי הולך הוא because went he ויתיצב מלאך יי בדרך and ...
8
votes
3answers
143 views

Is there any significance to the shift between cardinal and ordinal numbers in Genesis 1?

Genesis 1:5 uses a cardinal number "one" to describe the first day - יֹ֥ום אֶחָֽד - whereas all of the following days are modified by ordinals (WLC): 1:8 - יֹ֥ום שֵׁנִֽי 1:13 - יֹ֥ום שְׁלִישִֽׁי ...
6
votes
3answers
143 views

What does “bless” [ברך] mean?

יברך and ברך are translated as bless/ing all over the Bible but translated as kneel/ing in Gen 24:11, 2 Chr 6:13 ברך is translated as knee in Isa 45:23 What does the word ברך, translated as "bless" ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

1Kings 14:24 literal interpretation

וגם קדש היה בארץ and also the holy-consecrated living in the land עשו ככל התועבת הגוים they did all the abominations of the nations אשר הוריש יי מפני בני ישראל whom/which the LORD abandoned due to ...
6
votes
2answers
4k views

Original meaning of the expression “sexual immorality” in modern translations of Hebrew Bible [closed]

A modern tool will translate the Hebrew ערוה as “unchastity”, “nakedness” or “incest”. This term is translated in modern versions as “sexual immorality”, but that expression is very vague. In old ...
5
votes
3answers
903 views

Why is Elohim translated as God rather than gods?

I mean Elohim is a plural form of God. So the correct translation would be gods. Now, perhaps the word elohim is followed by singular words and hence the word Elohim must mean plural. So what? That ...
6
votes
2answers
240 views

Why are Hebrew verbs in the “perfect” form so often translated as present tense in modern translations?

Why are Hebrew verbs in the "perfect" form so often translated as present tense in modern translations? For example in Psalm 119:47 : וְאֶשְׁתַּֽעֲשַׁ֥ע בְּמִצְוֹתֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָהָֽבְתִּי׃ ...
10
votes
3answers
182 views

Matthew originally written in Hebrew?

I recently came across a post which suggested that Mathew was originally written in Hebrew. I had never heard this before... is this a significant scholarly position? If so, what evidence supports it? ...
5
votes
3answers
153 views

Is this a figure of speech? [duplicate]

If you look at Proverbs 6:16 and Proverbs 30:18, they are written in a certain format: "There are six things the LORD hates--no, seven things he detests" "There are three things that are too ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Land of Moriah or Mount Moriah?

Genesis 22: 2 talks of the'land of Moriah' and 2 Chronicles 3: 1 of 'Mount Moriah'. Does the original Hebrew use these two different words? Is there any further evidence that it is the same place?
7
votes
4answers
3k views

Does Leviticus 19:28 in the original text instruct not to tattoo for the dead or not to tattoo at all?

The command is clear in this passage to not pierce one's body for the dead. The slaves were to be pierced by their master upon choosing to stay with them rather than going free; therefore, it seems ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Is there a significance in the usage of the two Hebrew words for the pronoun “I” (ʾănî and ʾānōkî)

In Jonah 1:9, I noticed that both words for the pronoun "I" are used, ʾănî and ʾānōkî. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם עִבְרִי אָנֹכִי וְאֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲנִי יָרֵא אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אֶת־הַיָּם ...
4
votes
1answer
170 views

Why are the words “darkness” and “light” in their feminine form in Psalm 139:12?

In the following verse: גּם־חֹשֶׁךְ֘ לֹֽא־יַחְשִׁ֪יךְ מִ֫מֶּ֥ךָ וְ֭לַיְלָה כַּיּ֣וֹם יָאִ֑יר כַּ֜חֲשֵׁיכָ֗ה כָּאוֹרָֽה׃ Even the darkness is not dark to You, And the night is as bright as the ...
4
votes
2answers
130 views

Can “יָתוֹם” designate someone who has lost his father but not his mother?

The word "יָתוֹם" has been translated as "fatherless" by numerous translations (ESV KJV NASB etc, cf. Psalm 109:9), but "orphan" by others (LXX, Vulgate, TNK etc), dictionaries mentioning the two ...
3
votes
1answer
435 views

What is the role of the paragogic heh when used with the second person as in Psalm 108:5 (ר֣וּמָה)?

What is the role of the paragogic heh when used with the second person as in Psalm 108:5 (ר֣וּמָה)? When used with the first person it as a cohortative meaning, but what's the difference with the ...