The language in which the Jewish Scriptures (Tanakh) -- or the "Old Testament" in Christian Bibles -- were written.

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מָקוֹר - Why would we interpret 'maqor' as a “fountain”?

The Hebrew term maqor / מָקוֹר (Heb. 4726) has 18 occurrences in the biblical text, and is traditionally rendered 'fountain' in most passages, from KJV (below) right through ESV and HCSB: Psalm 36:...
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2answers
35 views

What is the best understanding of חָמָס in Isaiah 53:9?

Isaiah 53:9 And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth. Most major translations I've ...
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In 1 Kings 6:22, what is an accurate translation of הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲֽשֶׁר לַדְּבִיר?

The King James Version translates 1 Kings 6:22 as, And the whole house he overlaid with gold, until he had finished all the house: also the whole altar that was by the oracle he overlaid with gold....
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Song of Solomon 5:16, the signification of “”im“”

In Song of Solomon 5:16, the verse in Hebrew transliteration is: ḥikkōw mamṯaqqîm wəḵullōw maḥămaddîm zeh ḏōwḏî wəzeh rê‘î, bənōwṯ yərūšālim חִכּוֹ֙ מַֽמְתַקִּ֔ים וְכֻלּ֖וֹ מַחֲמַדִּ֑ים זֶ֤ה ...
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Summary of textual variations and history of Judges 6:12-16?

In Judges 6:12,14,16 we have the angel of the LORD appear to Gideon, but then he is just referred to by LORD, that is, just the tetragrammaton. 12 And the angel of the LORD[?] appeared to him and ...
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Does “first” demand a “second” in Zechariah 12:7?

Does the Hebrew for "first" in Zechariah 12:7 carry the same logical implication we would apply in English that there must then be, at least, a second? “And the LORD will give salvation to the ...
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127 views

Should Genesis 8:10 read “he waited” or “he waited anxiously”?

In Genesis 8:10 the first word in the MT is ויחל. The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) suggests emending to וייחל. Everyone seems to accept the BHS and translate this as "waited" just as if the ...
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64 views

What was the pillar of fire that led the Israelites through the desert? [closed]

I'm just curious, does anyone have any idea as to what the physical nature of the pillar of fire in Exodus 13:21-22 was? I've always imagined it as a vortex of fire (like a tornado but with fire) ...
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In 1 Kings 19:2, could Jezebel have been putting a death hex on Elijah?

In 1 Kings 19:2, the passage says: 2 Then Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah, saying, “So let the gods do to me, and more also, if I do not make your life as the life of one of them by tomorrow ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the remnant of Edom?

Amos states: “In that day I will raise up the booth of David that is fallen and repair its breaches, and raise up its ruins and rebuild it as in the days of old, that they may ...
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55 views

Are nous and pneuma synonymous?

1 Corinthians 2:16 Westcott and Hort 1881 τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, ὃς συνβιβάσει αὐτόν; ἡμεῖς δὲ νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν. Romans 11:34 Westcott and Hort 1881 Τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν ...
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72 views

THE burning bush: why the definite article?

In the Hebrew, the first time the burning bush appears it has an article. Literally this is translated by "the bush" (as in Young's Literal Translation). However, most common translations translate ...
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81 views

Angel or messenger?

Often, it is clear from context whether מלאך and αγγελος refer to a human messenger or an angelic messenger. For example, if a מלאך or αγγελος is sent by a human, then the messenger is likely human. ...
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120 views

Meaning behind Job's three daughters' names? Job 42:14

And he called the name of the first daughter Jemimah, and the name of the second Keziah, and the name of the third Keren-happuch. (Job 42:14) These are his three new daughters after God restored ...
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60 views

Genesis 3:21 - What Type of Garments Were Made? [closed]

After eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the first man and woman had their eyes opened; knew they were naked; took fig leaves and sewed them together to make aprons: And the ...
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In Gen. 4:7, why is the participle רֹבֵץ declined in the masculine gender?

In Gen. 4:7, it is written, הֲלוֹא אִם תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל בּוֹ My question concerns the word רֹבֵץ, a participle ...
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The God of Bethel?

Genesis 31:13 seems to create difficulties in translation. Most English Bibles translate the Masoretic text as saying "God of Bethel", as shown here: Genesis 31:13 (KJV): I am the God of Bethel, ...
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2answers
105 views

Whose נְבָלָ֔ה in Job 42:8?

When translating Job 42:8, most English Bibles are basically the same as ESV: Now therefore take seven bulls and seven rams and go to my servant Job and offer up a burnt offering for yourselves. ...
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79 views

Was the LXX used in Palestine in the First Century?

It is recorded that Jesus read from the Septuagint in the synagogue during His ministry. As an example, Luke 4:16-20 has Jesus reading from an Isaiah scroll in a synagogue, and the text provided ...
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Psalm 22:1 KJV vs Tehillim vs ESV

How does the ESV translate Psalm 22:1 as: To the choirmaster: according to The Doe of the Dawn. A Psalm of David. My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from saving me, ...
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Are the three distinctive Hebrew terms, translated “breath of life,” suggesting there was a different mankind at creation than there was at the flood?

The same English phrase, "breath of life," is used to describe three distinct Hebrew phrases. "Neshamah chay" is in Genesis 2:7 (creation). "Ruwach chay" is in Genesis 6:17 (intention for death at ...
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2answers
113 views

Why is 2 Chronicles 13:9 translated incorrectly in the RSV / NRSV / ESV?

Here is the full text of 2 Chronicles 13:9 from the NKJV: Have you not cast out the priests of the Lord, the sons of Aaron, and the Levites, and made for yourselves priests, like the peoples of ...
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89 views

Did the New Testament Writers Rely on the Hebrew Text?

Related: - Re. The Passover: Why do Christians Assert the Calendar Day Began at Sunset? 1. Question - a Reference Request Are there any textual evidences, (in the New Testament, and contemporary ...
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58 views

How were the manuscripts of the Bible written? [closed]

Did they have spaces, punctuation, paragraphs...? I mean the manuscripts that are closer to the original ones, do we know how the prophets wrote it?
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29 views

Did God tell Adam to “repopulate” the Earth or to “reproduce”? [duplicate]

In Genesis 1:28, God commands Adam: God blessed them and said to them, 'Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and ...
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The Lord's Prayer - Why do we ask to “lead us not into temptation”? Should it be “let us not enter into temptation”? [duplicate]

I've been doing a little reading on the history of The Lord's Prayer, and I came across a video and book by Dr. Rocco Errico, as well as "Holy Bible - From the Ancient Eastern Text" by George M. Lamsa....
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What does “entertaining angels unawares” mean?

Hebrews 13:2 says, "Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares." The tendency is 'gloss past' this passage; it's a reminder to be hospitable, ...
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145 views

Interpretation of Psalm 12:6-7

I'm doing a personal Bible study on the KJV Only doctrine. KJVO advocates point to Psalm 12:6-7 as evidence for the inerrancy of the KJV (or the source manuscripts used by them). The words of the ...
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1answer
62 views

Proverbs 26:10 - Are modern translations right to involve an 'archer'?

I'm trying to interpret Proverbs 26:10, but as I've attempted to cross-reference more and more sources, I keep finding radically different translations: "Like an archer who wounds at random, so is ...
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What is the relationship between the prostitute and the loaf of bread in Proverbs 6:26a?

The first phrase of Proverbs 6:26 is translated in several different ways by major translations: for the price of a prostitute is only a loaf of bread [ESV] For on account of a harlot one is ...
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1answer
60 views

Who is harmed in Psalm 15:4?

Psalm 15 begins with the question (v.1): יְהוָֹה מִי־יָגוּר בְּאָהֳלֶךָ O LORD, who shall sojourn in your tent? and answers (vv. 2-4): הוֹלֵךְ תָּ֭מִים וּפֹעֵל צֶדֶק He who walks ...
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In Jeremiah 10:8 what does “a worthless doctrine” mean?

What does "a worthless doctrine" mean in Hebrew, as found in Jeremiah 10:8? "But they are altogether dull-hearted and foolish; A wooden idol is a worthless doctrine." - Jeremiah 10:8 (NKJV)
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How should Genesis 3:4 be punctuated?

In English usually after the word said we add a comma and a quote to designate when the speech began. In Hebrew I hope for some sort of structure language law. As an example: Genesis 3:4 (Hebrew ...
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3answers
238 views

What is the proper translation of Proverbs 22:6?

I've read that the translation, which implies a promise to "right parenting" of Train up a child in the way he should go; even when he is old he will not depart from it. is not ...
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2answers
60 views

The correct translation of Isaiah 24:23

In Isaiah 24:23 we have וְחָֽפְרָה הַלְּבָנָה וּבוֹשָׁ֖ה הַֽחַמָּ֑ה The moon shall blush and the sun ashamed where levanah = moon and chammah = sun. But the Septuagint gives καὶ τακήσεται ...
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Translation of “šal·laḥ” in Malachi 2:16

The NIV translates "šal·laḥ" in Malachi 2:16 as "hates and divorces": “The man who hates and divorces his wife,” says the Lord, the God of Israel, “does violence to the one he should protect,” ...
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Who or what is meant by the “ten men” of Zechariah 8:23?

Zechariah 8:23 Thus says the LORD of hosts: In those days ten men from the nations of every tongue shall take hold of the robe of a Jew, saying, ‘Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is ...
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What does it mean when Queen Vashti “displays her beauty” in Esther 1:11

In Esther 1:10-11, what exactly does the phrase "display her beauty" mean? ESTHER 1:10-11 - "On the seventh day, when King Xerxes was in high spirits from wine, he commanded the seven eunuchs who ...
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1answer
69 views

Joseph's proclamation while riding in the chariot in Egypt

Genesis 41:43 contains a verse describing Joseph riding in one of Pharaoh's chariots and being proclaimed as a leader. Since I began reading Tanach more than a decade ago, the grammar of this verse ...
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336 views

The lexicology of Pharaoh's heart

In the narrative of Exodus 4-14 (spanning from the time of Moses's initial assignment until the crossing of the Red Sea), there are three different verbs used to describe the action against and/or the ...
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Not keep silent or to make silent in Job 41:12?

Job 41:4 (MT; v. 12 in English versions): NRSV: I will not keep silence concerning its limbs ... ESV: I will not keep silence concerning his limbs ... NASB: I will not keep silence concerning ...
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271 views

Genesis 3:16 - “Pain in Childbearing” or “Toil and Childbearing”

I recently came across a translation of Genesis 3:16 that seems to reinterpret the pronouncement on Eve. Carol Meyers* translates the first part of the verse like so: "I will greatly increase your ...
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1answer
73 views

Did Ezekiel warn the just in Ezekiel 3:20?

In the NABRE's rendition of Ezekiel 3:20, it appears that Ezekiel will be held accountable for the initially-just person's sin, even if he warned the person to not sin: (NABRE) But if the just ...
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In Daniel 10:13, is the angelic speaker himself left alone, or does he leave Michael?

While looking at interpretations of Daniel 10:13, I found something that seemed strange in the writings of Theodoret. In most modern translations, the verse reads something like this: The prince ...
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1answer
94 views

What is the difference between “the law” and “the commandment” given by God to Moses? (Exodus 24:12)

Exodus 24:12: The LORD said to Moses, "Come up to me on the mountain and wait there, that I may give you the tablets of stone, with the law and the commandment, which I have written for their ...
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1answer
65 views

What is the Temple of Arza? Which idol is this?

In I Kings 16:9, the Bible mentions that Zimri assassinated Elah, king of Israel, when the latter was drunk at the "House of Arza" (בית ארצא). Both the Targum and the Peshitta there add that Arza was ...
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351 views

What factors define meaning of “little ones” in Deuteronomy?

In Deu. 20:13-14, it is written, 13 And when the Lord your God gives it into your hand, you shall put all its males to the sword, 14 but the women and the little ones, the livestock, and ...
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154 views

From the time what came to be? - Isaiah 48:16

I'm just not sure what the it is referring to here, or is it implied? Is it connected to wherever there is? Isaiah 48:16 (ESV) Draw near to me, hear this: from the beginning I have not ...
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1answer
100 views

“Those who hate me” in Exodus 20:5

Exodus 20:5b (WLC | ESV) : כִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֞י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵד עֲוֺ֨ן אָבֹ֧ת עַל־בָּנִ֛ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֹׂנְאָֽ֑י for I the LORD your God am a ...
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67 views

In Isaiah 46:10, what exactly will God accomplish?

Isaiah 46:10 states (emphasis added): (Is 46:10 NABRE) At the beginning I declare the outcome; from of old, things not yet done. I say that my plan shall stand, I accomplish my every ...