Koiné (from κοινή, "common") Greek was the form of post-classical Greek spoken and written in Hellenistic and Roman antiquity. It is the language of the Septuagint (LXX), Christian New Testament, and most early Christian theological writings.

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Why is δεδικαίωται translated “freed” in many English versions?

Romans 6:7 invariably discusses a believer's freedom from sin in most English translations: NET © (For someone who has died has been freed from sin.) NIV © because anyone who has died has ...
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Translation of Acts 13:48

Reading Acts 13:48, the greek text reads: ἀκούοντα δὲ τὰ ἔθνη ἔχαιρον καὶ ἐδόξαζον τὸν λόγον τοῦ Κυρίου καὶ ἐπίστευσαν ὅσοι ἦσαν τεταγμένοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον With implicit commas (according to ...
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How does the translation of γενόμενον as “made (of)” imply a previous state of existence?

The Pulpit Commentary* says that the word γενόμενον (KJV: made) in the phrase γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός (made of a woman) in Galatians 4:4 implies a previous state of existence, whereas "born" (so NASB, ...
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Who is being slandered in 2 Peter 2:10b-11?

There are a number of interrelated questions I have arising from 2 Peter 2:10-11. Here are a pair of translations of the relevant verses (emphasis mine): NIV: Bold and arrogant, they are not ...
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Romans 8:28 translation

Romans 8:28 (NA28) reads: Οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν. There is also a textual variant that explicitly makes 'God' the ...
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What does Mark 7:19 really say?

The KJV and NASB transliterations of this verse do not seem to be 100% correct. Greek Word for word in Context "since not it enters her/he into mind/soul, rather/but, into the lower belly ...
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Does Revelation 10:11 belong in chapter 10 or chapter 11?

Does the original greek language (or other concrete evidence) provide an indication that Revelation 10:11 belongs in chapter 10, or does it it lack such an indication, such that it is ambiguous in the ...
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What word comprises the subject of the second clause of 1 John 4:8?

1 John 4:8 reads in the NIV, Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love. However this translation reverses the order of the words of the second clause in the original Greek: ...
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“Overcome” vs “comprehend” in John 1:5

John 1:5 reads in the ESV: The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. I recently heard the KJV quoted and was struck by the difference: And the light shineth in ...
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“I am the Christ” vs. “I am he” in the Synoptics (Matt 24:5 // Mark 13:6 // Luke 21:8)

In a prior Q&A, we discussed the Semitic background of Jesus' statements recorded in the Gospels as ἐγώ εἰμι (= I am [he]). My understanding based on the answer there and a follow-up Q&A was ...
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416 views

Is Peter's use of Tartarus adoptive of Hellenistic language or ideas?

We see here in 2 Peter 2:4 reference to what in most English translations is "hell", but in the Greek is Tartarus (as usually the footnotes note): For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, ...
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What evidence is there that “morphe theou” in Philippians 2:6 means “God's nature”?

Is there any evidence that μορφῇ θεοῦ (morphe theou) in Philippians 2:6 means the "nature" of God the Father? ὃς ἐν μορφῇ θεοῦ ὑπάρχων οὐχ ἁρπαγμὸν ἡγήσατο τὸ εἶναι ἴσα θεῷ, — SBLGNT Several ...
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What would be a good translation of 'poiēma'?

Two verses use the Greek ποίημα (G4161): For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what ...
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Colossians 3:23 - Meaning of «ἐκ ψυχῆς» and distinction between ποιῆτε and ἐργάζεσθε?

In Col. 3:23, it is written, καὶ πᾶν ὃ τι ἐὰν ποιῆτε ἐκ ψυχῆς ἐργάζεσθε ὡς τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις TR, 1550 What does «ἐκ ψυχῆς» mean? What is the distinction in meaning between the verbs ...
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What scripture is the author of 1 Tim 5:18 referencing?

1 Timothy 5:17-18 states Elders who provide effective leadership must be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who work hard in speaking and teaching. For the scripture says, ...
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Col. 1:27: What is the meaning of “this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory”?

In Col. 1:24-29, it is written, 24 Now I rejoice in what was suffered for you, and I fill up in my flesh what is still lacking in regard to Christ’s afflictions, for the sake of his body, which is ...
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80 views

In 1 John 2:27, what is the meaning of the phrase τὸ χρίσμα?

In 1 John 2:27, it is written, But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is ...
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Son of a snake or illegitimate son of a snake?

In a lecture before the Biblical Archeology Society and on page 123 of Social-science Commentary on the Gospel of John Dr. Richard L. Rohrbaugh (and Dr. Bruce J. Malina) make the claim that verses ...
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In 1 Cor. 10:27, is the apostle Paul alluding to Exo. 34:15 concerning an idolatrous feast to a heathen god?

In 1 Cor. 10:27, it is written, 27 If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake. (KJV, ...
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In Eph. 1:13, what does the word “sealed” (ἐσφραγίσθητε) mean?

In Eph. 1:13, it is written, In Him, you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation—having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise, ...
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Does Theophilus of Antioch's statement have any bearing on interpreting Mathew 5:28?

I found a quote on this site which calls into question the accuracy of Matthew 5:28 in the KJV according to a quotation of Theophilus of Antioch: "ἡ δὲ εὐαγγέλιος φωνὴ ἐπιτατικώτερον διδάσκει ...
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Why does biblehub.com translate κεφαλῆς of I Corinthians 11:4 as “[his] head”?

Why does Biblehub translate κεφαλῆς in I Corinthians 11:4 as "[his] head" the morphology states N-GFS? Why not "[her] head"?
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What does “Christian” mean (Acts 11:26)?

The word "Christian" is first used in Acts 11:26. and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. So for a whole year Barnabas and Saul met with the church and taught a significant number of ...
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Does the Canaanite woman disagree with Jesus in Matthew 15:27?

27 ἡ δὲ εἶπεν· Ναί, κύριε, καὶ γὰρ τὰ κυνάρια ἐσθίει ἀπὸ τῶν ψιχίων τῶν πιπτόντων ἀπὸ τῆς τραπέζης τῶν κυρίων αὐτῶν. (Matthew 15:27, SBT GNT) 26 And he answered, “It is not right to take the ...
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What, exactly, counts as a “vain repetition” (Matthew 6:7)?

I answered a question on Christianity.SE which focused on Christian prayer in light of Matthew 6:7: But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be ...
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Can “him” in Revelation 1:1 refer to John?

Revelation 1:1 (ESV) reads: The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant ...
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What is the meaning of the Greek word λόγος in John 1:1?

ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. John 1:1 (Westcott and Hort 1881) The Greek word λόγος has more than one meaning. It means 'word','speech','divine ...
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What is the meaning of “katatomē” in Philippians 3:2?

I'm looking over John Frame's treatment of the third commandment in The Doctrine of the Christian Life (page 509), and he makes an interesting statement regarding Paul's angry words against his ...
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What is the significance of τὴν κατατομήν in Phil 3:2? [duplicate]

The Apostle Paul makes several references to circumcision throughout his epistles. However, in his epistle to the Philippians, he uses two different words for circumcision as the following two verses ...
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Was Zechariah simply mute, or deaf as well?

In Luke 1 (ESV), Zechariah the priest is rendered mute for his lack of faith: 19 And the angel answered him, “I am Gabriel. I stand in the presence of God, and I was sent to speak to you and to ...
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53 views

A manger vs The manger in Luke 2

Does the Greek specifically say "a manger" or does it say "the manger" in Luke 2:7,12,16? Wondering if it, by chance, denotes a specific manger as opposed to any manger. In other words, would the ...
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Was “Τετέλεσται” actually stamped on paid bills and debt certificates in the first century?

I've often heard some really cool explanations around the meaning for the greek word Τετέλεσται in the New Testament where Jesus said, "It is Finished". I love what I've heard, and have even preached ...
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Translation of Romans 5:12

There is already a question about a possible contradiction between Romans 5:12 and 5:15, but this question focuses exclusively on the translation of 5:12 (which may inadvertently also answer the other ...
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Is 'all-things' literally including any conceivable thing in Rom 8:28?

Paul says: And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose. (ESV, Romans 8:28) Does 'all-things' literally include ...
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What basis do we have for defining Sabbatismos in Hebrews 4:9?

The word, Sabbatismos occurs in the Greek NT only once. Strongest Strong's defines it as Sabbath rest; Sabbath observance. Thayer's/Strong's defines it as a Sabbath keeping. Various English ...
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Galatians 2:16: is it really “not by works but by faith”?

The NASB renders Galatians 2:16 as follows: nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus . . . The way this is rendered, it sounds ...
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Whose faith is the subject of Hebrews 11:11?

Πίστει καὶ αὐτὴ Σάρρα δύναμιν εἰς καταβολὴν σπέρματος ἔλαβεν καὶ παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας, ἐπεὶ πιστὸν ἡγήσατο τὸν ἐπαγγειλάμενον (Hebrews 11:11, Westcott and Hort) The traditional translation of ...
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In Mark 3, is it Jesus' family or friends who try to take him away

Mark 3:21 NLT "When his family heard what was happening, they tried to take him away. “He’s out of his mind,” they said." IN other versions it says "own people" or "friends" The greek was not very ...
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Is the 'revelation OF or FROM Jesus Christ'? (Rev 1:1)

Before we select a canned interpretive model, shouldn't we first consider what is meant by Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ (Rev 1:1)? Does the Greek better support "revelation OF" or "revelation FROM" Jesus ...
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Were "the thieves” who reviled Jesus on the cross only one person?

I recently ran across this answer on C.SE reconciling Luke’s account of the repentant thief on the cross (Luke 23:40) with Mark’s statement - also present in Matthew - that both thieves reviled Jesus ...
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Harmonizing Matthew 10:10, Luke 9:3, Mark 6:8

Matthew 10:9-10 Do not get any gold or silver or copper to take with you in your belts - no bag for the journey or extra shirt or sandals or a staff, for the worker is worth his keep. (NIV) ...
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What version of the Bible is translated closest to or directly from the original languages of the texts? [duplicate]

I have for some time now looked at many versions of the Bible to come to the conclusion that most of the translations that try to interpret the text from the original Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek ...
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Linking NT Greek to Hebrew through the LXX

What tools are the necessary tools to determine what NT Greek words correspond to the Hebrew words that were translated into the LXX?
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Looking for electronic copies of the original Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic texts, and electronic translation/analyses databases to interpret them [closed]

If this question is worded poorly or could be rephrased, please do help me know how best to ask it. I am genuinely seeking the information outlined below, but I'm new here, so please forgive me if I ...
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Where can I find Greek and Hebrew plain text sources? [closed]

Source texts are available with software There are numerous Biblical source texts available (free, in "public domain") for download into Bible software type programs. Where else are they available? ...
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What is the difference between ζωὴ and ψυχὴ?

The word "life" appears in most translations of John 12:25 three times. For example, in the ESV: Whoever loves his life loses it, and whoever hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal ...
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What does “belly” mean in Philippians 3:19?

Many translations of the Bible use the word "belly" in Philippians 3:19: Their end is destruction, their god is their belly, and they glory in their shame, with minds set on earthly things. (ESV) ...
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What is the difference between en/eis for Pauline “Faith in Christ” phrases?

Paul has several different phrases which all translate "Faith in Christ". This question pertains to the difference in meaning for faith in Christ where the English word "in" has a direct Greek word, ...
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What does the phrase 'ἐν Χριστῷ' in the Pauline Corpus mean?

Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. 2 Corinthians 5:17 (ESV) For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all ...
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Is there any significance to using φάγω vs ἐσθίω?

Matthew (for one example) uses two different words for eating, and I'm trying to figure out if there's any difference in meaning. In Matthew 12:1, he uses ἐσθίω: ...and His disciples were hungry, ...