Koiné (from κοινή, "common") Greek was the form of post-classical Greek spoken and written in Hellenistic and Roman antiquity. It is the language of the Septuagint (LXX), Christian New Testament, and most early Christian theological writings.

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In 1 Thessalonians 4:16, does «ἐν Χριστῷ» modify «οἱ νεκροὶ» or «ἀναστήσονται»?

In 1 Thes. 4:16, it is written, 16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. ...
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Question concerning those who “wash their robes” in Revelation 7

In Rev. 7:9-14, it is written, 9 After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could count, from every nation and all tribes and peoples and tongues, standing before the ...
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What is the meaning of the Greek word sometimes translated “quiet” in 1 Peter 3:4?

I am looking for the correct Greek word and definition for the word used in 1 Peter 3:4 about the woman having a gentle and quiet spirit. [L]et your adorning be the hidden person of the heart ...
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Which idea for εἶδος is intended in 1 Thess 5:22?

Background In 1 Thessalonians 5:22, the Greek reads (no major textual variations): ἀπὸ παντὸς εἴδους πονηροῦ ἀπέχεσθε The word εἶδος (here in the singular genitive neuter εἴδους) is translated ...
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Did the New Testament Writers Rely on the Hebrew Text?

Related: - Re. The Passover: Why do Christians Assert the Calendar Day Began at Sunset? 1. Question - a Reference Request Are there any textual evidences, (in the New Testament, and contemporary ...
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In 1 Corinthians 2, who do the “we” passages refer to?

My bible study teacher claims all the "we" passages in 1 Corinthians 2 refer to the apostles specifically, not to believers in general. The natural man is not a man without the Spirit, but a man ...
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In Hebrews 12:1, how should μαρτύρων be understood?

In Heb. 12:1, it is written, Τοιγαροῦν καὶ ἡμεῖς τοσοῦτον ἔχοντες περικείμενον ἡμῖν νέφος μαρτύρων ὄγκον ἀποθέμενοι πάντα καὶ τὴν εὐπερίστατον ἁμαρτίαν δι᾽ ὑπομονῆς τρέχωμεν τὸν προκείμενον ἡμῖν ...
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What's the root definition of the word “judge” in Matthew 7:1?

What is the root definition of the word judge in the below scripture? Does it correlate to the currently accepted definition of judge? Judge not, that ye be not judged. (Matthew 7:1 KJV) ...
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What do σῶμα ψυχικόν and σῶμα πνευματικόν refer to in 1 Corinthians 15:44?

It seems most translations have translate the terms σῶμα ψυχικόν and σῶμα πνευματικόν in 1 Corinthians 15:44 as "natural body" and "spiritual body." But there are several translations that disagree. ...
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Meaning of ἐνδημέω and ἐκδημέω in 2 Cor 5?

I was studying 2 Corinthians 5:1-10 when I noticed that two terms that play a major part in its interpretation are very unusual Greek words: ἐνδημέω - endēmeō ἐκδημέω - ekdēmeō They are clearly ...
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Translation of “this generation will not pass away” in Matthew 24:34?

I'm curious specifically regarding the translation of the word "generation" here in Matthew 24:34, Mark 13:30, and Luke 21:32. Matthew 24:34 (NIV) Truly I tell you, this generation will ...
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'In all the world' - are Matthew 24:14 & Colossians 1:6 talking about the same scope?

"This good news of the kingdom will be proclaimed in all the world as a testimony to all nations. And then the end will come." - Matthew 24:14 (HCSB) καὶ κηρυχθήσεται τοῦτο τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ...
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Does Matthew 1:25 provide evidence for or against the perpetual virginity of Mary?

Matthew 1:25, regarding Joseph "knowing" Mary, reads: but knew her not until she had given birth to a son. And he called his name Jesus. (ESV) The word "until," in English, typically indicates ...
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Word order in 1 Timothy 2:12 (διδάσκειν, didaskein and γυναικὶ, gynaiki)

Are there any interpretive issues regarding word order [emphasis in bold added] in 1 Timothy 2:12? NA28: διδάσκειν δὲ γυναικὶ οὐκ ἐπιτρέπω οὐδὲ αὐθεντεῖν ἀνδρός, ἀλλ᾿ εἶναι ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ, didaskein ...
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Why is “christou” translated “God” in KJV Romans 10:17?

I was actually looking up the verse for another question I might ask about rhema (actually rēmatos) "hearing, and hearing by..." but I noticed that though I had memory of it saying "the word of God", ...
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In Romans 1:4, what is the meaning of the phrase «πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης»?

In Rom. 1:4, it is written, And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead: KJV, 1769 τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει ...
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Is “The Lord of the Sabbath” the LORD God?

The Gospel of Jesus Christ records that Jesus states He is Lord of the Sabbath: For the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath. (Matthew 12:8 ESV) So the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath. (...
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John 1:25: εἶπον v. εἶπαν - which is more likely to have been written in the 1st century A.D.?

In John 1:25, the Textus Receptus has εἶπον, while the NA28 has εἶπαν. Apparently both are conjugated in the aorist tense and in the same voice (active) and number (plural). While they therefore have ...
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80 views

In John 1:32, what is the distinction between «ὡσεὶ» (TR) and «ὡς» (NA28)?

In John 1:32, the Greek text states, ΛΒʹ καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάννης λέγων ὅτι τεθέαμαι τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον ὡσεὶ περιστερὰν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν TR, 1550 ΛΒʹ καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάννης ...
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How to interpret neuter adjective “one” in John 10:30?

My understanding is an adjective in the predicate function should generally match the subject in case, number, and gender. In John 10:30 that means the adjective “one” should be masculine (εἷς), but ...
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Are nous and pneuma synonymous?

1 Corinthians 2:16 Westcott and Hort 1881 τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν Κυρίου, ὃς συνβιβάσει αὐτόν; ἡμεῖς δὲ νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν. Romans 11:34 Westcott and Hort 1881 Τίς γὰρ ἔγνω νοῦν ...
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In Revelation 13:8, should “ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου” be translated “from” or “before” the foundation of the world?

The phrase ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου is generally translated from the foundation of the world, and is translated this way in all occurrences of the phrase in the ESV, except in Revelation 13:8: and all ...
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What are the translations of the Greek word μονογενής in Ancient Versions?Is it “only” or “only-begotten”?

What are the translations of the Greek word μονογενής in Ancient Versions? What are the rendering of μονογενής into Ancient Versions of the *NT passages? Hebrew Arabic: Ethiopic: Syriac (Aramaic):...
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What are the steps to overcoming in Revelation 12:11?

Revelation 12:11 (ESV) And they have conquered him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony, for they loved not their lives even unto death. The Greek uses kai dia for the ...
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Should John 1:18 read “the only begotten God”?

I was reading my New King James version of the Bible and found a footnote for this verse: John 1:18 (NKJV) No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son,[a] who is in the bosom of the ...
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What is the significance of Acts 10:13, 11:7 “make sacrificial slaughter”

The verses say, και εγενετο φωνη προς αυτον αναστας πετρε θυσον και φαγε and became a sound/voice to him arise Peter make-sacrificial-slaughter and eat
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Do the qualifications of an overseer (ἐπίσκοπος) and the Ephesians 4:11 gift of pastor/teacher make them interchangeable or just related?

Peter encourages elders in 1 Peter 5:2 to ποιμάνατε (be shepherds). Paul instructs Timothy to install elders with qualifications listed in 1 Timothy 3:2 that include διδακτικόν (apt to teach). In ...
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The meaning of παρασκευή ('day of preparation')

Background I realise that the word παρασκευή has a wider range then just a reference to a day, for example Eph 6:15 is not a reference to a specific day however it is the understanding of this term ...
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Plural declension of οὐρανός in Matt. 16:18 v. singular declension of οὐρανός in Matt. 18:18

In Matt. 16:19 where the Lord Jesus Christ bestows the keys of the kingdom of Heaven upon the apostle Peter, the Greek text uses the plural declension of οὐρανός, as follows: καὶ δώσω σοι τὰς ...
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Who is “The Son” in Hebrews chapter 1: 8 ? Is He God in the strictest sense of the word, or a created being?

The New World Translation, gives us a very contrary translation of this verse, that sets the stage for this question.! It's translators have this rendering to offer as a legitimate rendering of ...
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Those who believe are “especially” saved?

1 Timothy 4:10 (NET emphasis mine) reads: In fact this is why we work hard and struggle, because we have set our hope on the living God, who is the Savior of all people, especially of believers. ...
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“A god” or “God” in John 1:1?

John 1:1 (NWT): In [the] beginning the Word was, and the Word was with God, and the Word was a god. This translation, the Jehovah's Witnesses New World Translation is, I think, unique in using ...
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Where does “by the mercy shown to you” belong in Romans 11:31?

The translation of Romans 11:31 has me baffled. Starting with v. 30:1 ὥσπερ γὰρ ὑμεῖς ποτε ἠπειθήσατε τῷ θεῷ Just as you were then disobedient to God νῦν δὲ ἠλεήθητε τῇ τούτων ἀπειθείᾳ ...
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What is the difference between the μορφῇ of God and the εἶδος of God?

who, though he was in the form [morphe] of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped (Philippians 2:6 ESV). And the Father who sent me has himself borne witness about me. His ...
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Does the adulterer in Matthew 5:32 cause the spouse to commit adultery or make her a victim of adultery?

What exactly was Jesus saying in Matthew 5:32? Matthew 5:32 (NKJV) But I say to you that whoever divorces his wife for any reason except sexual immorality causes her to commit adultery; and ...
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Was the LXX used in Palestine in the First Century?

It is recorded that Jesus read from the Septuagint in the synagogue during His ministry. As an example, Luke 4:16-20 has Jesus reading from an Isaiah scroll in a synagogue, and the text provided ...
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Matthew 1:20 - word order and translation

The text of Matthew 1:20b in the UBS4 reads: τὸ γὰρ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθὲν ἐκ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἁγίου. In the ESV, it is rendered: for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. What is ...
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Does “sexual immorality” in Rev. 2:10 really mean idolatry?

Revelation 2:14 NASB But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who kept teaching Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, to ...
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What does the word harpagmos mean in Philippians 2:6

MOUNCE renders it: who, although he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, Westcott and Hort / [NA27 variants] ὃς ἐν μορφῇ θεοῦ ὑπάρχων οὐχ ...
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Galatians 6:10 - true meaning of 'and especially'

This verse is oft quoted to support various ideas in relation to helping others (particularly in charitable situations). So then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone, and especially to ...
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What is the basis for translating ἀντίτυπον as “symbol” in 1 Peter 3:21?

ὃ καὶ ὑμᾶς ἀντίτυπον νῦν σώζει βάπτισμα, οὐ σαρκὸς ἀπόθεσις ῥύπου ἀλλὰ συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς ἐπερώτημα εἰς θεόν, δι' ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 1 Peter 3:21 (Westcott and Hort 1881) and this ...
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Does the greek word απαυγασμα indicate the person of Christ, or just his qualities?

απαυγασμα is radiance: The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After he had provided purification for sins, he ...
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Does Romans 9:5 assert the deity of Christ?

Also known by the more pedestrian title: How should Romans 9:5 be punctuated? Romans 9:5, NA28 (punctuation omitted): ὧν οἱ πατέρες καὶ ἐξ ὧν ὁ Χριστὸς τὸ κατὰ σάρκα ὁ ὢν ἐπὶ πάντων θεὸς ...
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What does the Greek word μαλακιαν mean in Isaiah 53:3 (LXX)?

Isaiah 53:3 (LXX) ἀλλὰ τὸ εἶδος αὐτοῦ ἄτιμον ἐκλεῖπον παρὰ πάντας ἀνθρώπους ἄνθρωπος ἐν πληγῇ ὢν καὶ εἰδὼς φέρειν μαλακίαν ὅτι ἀπέστραπται τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ἠτιμάσθη καὶ οὐκ ἐλογίσθη What ...
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How many scenarios is Paul speaking of in Philippians 1:23?

Paul gives us a glimpse into his own thoughts and internal debate as he awaits possible death in jail in Philippians 1:20-23 He initially presents us with two seemingly clear options: Live and ...
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What was meant by “paradise” when Jesus spoke to the thief on the cross?

As he was crucified, Jesus engaged in a conversation with one of the other thieves hung along side him. at the end is this pronouncement: Luke 23:43 (ESV) 43 And he said to him, "Truly, I say to ...
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What did Jesus mean by “be perfect” in the Sermon on the Mount?

I asked this on the Christianity Stack Exchange site, and they told me it would be better here. So I here I am asking it... Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect....
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In Phil. 1:23, what is the significance of the second infinitive being anarthrous in the phrase «τὸ ἀναλῦσαι καὶ σὺν Χριστῷ εἶναι»?

In Phil. 1:23, it is written, συνέχομαι γὰρ ἐκ τῶν δύο τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ἔχων εἰς τὸ ἀναλῦσαι καὶ σὺν Χριστῷ εἶναι πολλῷ μᾶλλον κρεῖσσον TR, 1550 What significance if any is there in the second ...
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Does Pilate's language suggest a timing for the customary release?

Does the language used in the three verses referencing the release of a prisoner at the feast suggest anything about the timing of such a release? In Matthew and Mark it is the Feast and in John it ...
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What does it mean “to quench” in 1 Thessalonians 5:19?

In 1 Thessalonians 5:19 we read: Quench not the Spirit. (KJV) According to Strong's, "Quench" is the word 4570 σβέννυμι, which means "I extinguish, quench, I suppress, thwart." The dictionary ...