Koiné (from κοινή, "common") Greek was the form of post-classical Greek spoken and written in Hellenistic and Roman antiquity. It is the language of the Septuagint (LXX), Christian New Testament, and most early Christian theological writings.

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What are the conditions for ongoing possession of eternal life in John 5:24?

Exegetically, in John 5:24, is ongoing possession of "eternal life" conditional on "hears" (once) and "believes" (once), or, do both present tense Greek verbs (participles) indicate required ongoing ...
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What is the meaning of the phrase “men and brethren” in Acts?

In several places in Acts, Peter, James, and Paul (and perhaps others) address groups of people by saying "men and brethren" – perhaps in the same way that we would use "ladies and gentlemen" or ...
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What does “belly” mean in Philippians 3:19?

Many translations of the Bible use the word "belly" in Philippians 3:19: Their end is destruction, their god is their belly, and they glory in their shame, with minds set on earthly things. (ESV) ...
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Is κεχαριτωμένος synonymous with δεδικαιωμένος?

Jerome translated "ἀνδρὶ κεχαριτωμένῳ" (a man who has been graced) as "homine iustificato" (justified man). Is κεχαριτωμένος synonymous with δεδικαιωμένος? οὐκ ἰδοὺ λόγος ὑπὲρ δόμα ἀγαθόν; καὶ ...
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Is κεχαριτωμένη synonymous with πλήρης χάριτος?

Is κεχαριτωμένη synonymous with πλήρης χάριτος? Why did Jerome translate the Greek word κεχαριτωμένη into Latin as gratia plena (full of grace) in Luke 1:28? καὶ εἰσελθὼν πρὸς αὐτὴν εἶπεν Χαῖρε, ...
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What is the meaning/connotation of προσεποιήσατο in Luke 24:28?

In Luke 24:28, we read ... καὶ αὐτὸς προσεποιήσατο πορρώτερον πορεύεσθαι (Westcott & Hort)1 ... and He προσεποιήσατο farther to be going Here, does προσεποιήσατο carry an active sense, ...
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What does “Ek merous” mean in 1 Corinthians 13:9-10?

In 1 Corinthians 13:9-10, Paul writes: ἐκ μέρους γὰρ γινώσκομεν καὶ ἐκ μέρους προφητεύομεν· ὅταν δὲ ἔλθῃ τὸ τέλειον, τὸ ἐκ μέρους καταργηθήσεται. (Westcott and Hort) What does "ἐκ μέρους" mean ...
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By the phrase “οὔτε ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι”, was Jesus saying that there are sins that could be forgiven after death?

Reading Matthew 12:32 at face value, it seems that it's telling us that forgiveness can be obtained after death but Jesus won't contradict himself in Luke 16:20-25 (I mean, the rich man could easily ...
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What is the correct text of Matthew 16:22 in the Codex Vaticanus?

While translating Matthew 16 today, I ran across what the NET Bible calls a "highly elliptical expression" in verse 22: καὶ προσλαβόμενος αὐτὸν ὁ Πέτρος ἤρξατο ἐπιτιμᾶν αὐτῷ λέγων· Ἵλεώς σοι, ...
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How does ὁ ἐρχόμενος relate to the Father? How is the father “coming”? (Ἀποκάλυψις [Revelation] 1,4)

Ἀποκάλυψις 1,4α Ἰωάννης ταῖς ἑπτὰ ἐκκλησίαις ταῖς ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ · χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος ... From context, this is a reference to the Father (1,4β refers to the ...
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Can anyone explain this apparent discrepancy between the Greek and Hebrew versions of Isaiah 30:20-21?

Isaiah 30:21, as translated from the Masoretic text (Hebrew), has been used times to say that God can show us where we need to go. וְאָזְנֶ֙יךָ֙ תִּשְׁמַ֣עְנָה דָבָ֔ר מֵֽאַחֲרֶ֖יךָ לֵאמֹ֑ר זֶ֤ה ...
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Meaning(s) of “ἠγέρθη” in Mark 16:6

In Mark 16:6, the women come to the tomb of Jesus and are told by a young man in a white robe: ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε· (NA28) He has been raised; he is not here. (ESV) Does “ἠγέρθη" ...
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John 3:16 - how is it “His Son”?

Standard caveat: I'm new to NT Greek, so please be gentle if my question is silly, basic or obvious. John 3:16 in the UBS5 is: Οὕτως γὰρ ἠγάπησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον, ὥστε τὸν υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ ...
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Blood of God reference to Christ's deity (Act:20:28)

In Acts 20 verses 18-25, Paul addressed the Ephesian elders with a heart felt message. At verse 28 Paul seems to indicate that it was Yahweh's blood, which would specify Christ's shed blood, that ...
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51 views

Could I Corinthians 2:15 carry a sense of “surprise”?

I was listening to an old sermon by David Jeremiah today in which he suggested that the original Greek of I Corinthians 2:15 would be read with a connotation of "surprise" which would be captured by a ...
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267 views

What does Mark 7:19 really say?

The KJV and NASB transliterations of this verse do not seem to be 100% correct. Greek Word for word in Context "since not it enters her/he into mind/soul, rather/but, into the lower belly ...
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Revelation 2: “A few things against thee…”

In the seven epistles to the seven churches in Revelation 2 and 3, we bump into the phrases like "but I have a few things against you". Namely, three times: To the church in Ephesus: ...
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Does Matthew 1:25 provide evidence for or against the perpetual virginity of Mary?

Matthew 1:25, regarding Joseph "knowing" Mary, reads: but knew her not until she had given birth to a son. And he called his name Jesus. (ESV) The word "until," in English, typically indicates ...
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Can the Greek word choice underlining “agony” mean “afraid” or “worried” in Luke 22:44?

Although some manuscripts omit Luke 22:44, it has been used along with Hebrews 2:18 to show that Jesus was afraid. It has been proposed that if Jesus was not afraid, then He is not able to help those ...
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Why is 'fine' added in the translation of ἱματίων in 1 Peter 3:3

Why do certain translations add the word 'fine' in 1 Peter 3:3 whilst others do not? Let your adornment not be the external kind, braiding hair and putting on gold jewelry or putting on fine ...
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What meaning does the preposition πρὸς really convey in John 1:1?

John 1:1 reads as follows: Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν Θεόν, καὶ Θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. I'm wondering about the "πρὸς τὸν Θεόν", translated as "with god." But, I'm more asking about the ...
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Χριστοῦ ᾽Ιησοῦ vs. ᾽Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ: Is there a difference? [duplicate]

I'm beginning to memorize some scripture in NT Greek, and I'm starting with Ephesians. I'm in Ephesians 1:1-2, which reads: 1 Παῦλος ἀπόστολος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ τοῖς ἁγίοις τοῖς ...
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What is the meaning of the Greek word “ask” as used in James 1:5?

What is the meaning of the Greek word "ask" as used in James 1:5? The verse reads (NA28 | ESV): Εἰ δέ τις ὑμῶν λείπεται σοφίας, αἰτείτω παρὰ τοῦ διδόντος θεοῦ πᾶσιν ἁπλῶς καὶ μὴ ὀνειδίζοντος, καὶ ...
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Who are “the sons of disobedience” in Colossians 3:6?

If this variant represents the original text, then who are "the sons of disobedience" (τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας, tous huious tēs apeitheias) in Colossians 3:6? NA28: δι᾿ ἃ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ ...
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Word order in 1 Timothy 2:12 (διδάσκειν, didaskein and γυναικὶ, gynaiki)

Are there any interpretive issues regarding word order [emphasis in bold added] in 1 Timothy 2:12? NA28: διδάσκειν δὲ γυναικὶ οὐκ ἐπιτρέπω οὐδὲ αὐθεντεῖν ἀνδρός, ἀλλ᾿ εἶναι ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ, didaskein ...
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What does the Greek word ἀπαύγασμα Hebrews 1:3 means [duplicate]

What does the Greek word ἀπαύγασμα (apaugasma) means in Hebrews 1:3? The said Greek word was translated differently in English Versions.Some has "radiance" while others have "reflection." Which ...
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Does Revelation 10:11 belong in chapter 10 or chapter 11?

Does the original greek language (or other concrete evidence) provide an indication that Revelation 10:11 belongs in chapter 10, or does it it lack such an indication, such that it is ambiguous in the ...
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John 15:5 – Bring Forth or Carry/Support Fruit?

In John 15 Jesus uses an example from agriculture to illustrate the relationship between Himself and His disciples: ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἄμπελος ὑμεῖς τὰ κλήματα ὁ μένων ἐν ἐμοὶ κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ οὗτος φέρει ...
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Odd construction in 1 Peter 3:2?

As I've mentioned in other posts/questions, I am a novice to NT Greek and translation (but I'm trying to fix that!). Today, I randomly picked 1 Peter 3:1-6 to translate as an exercise. I kinda sorta ...
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Does the word Satan ever show up in the New Testament?

Satan is a Hebrew word that means adversary. The New Testament is written in Greek. So I guess not. It seems that they have another word. Diabolos or something that means the devil. Is that devil ...
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Ephesians 3:4 “πρὸς ὃ”

I'm a beginner at NT Greek. I'm studying through Ephesians right now and am working on translating Ephesians 3. I get to verse 4, and I'm struggling to make any sense of how to translate it. I get the ...
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The articular infinitive of John 17:5 rendering

Greeting! I was having a discussion bout John 17:5 and someone pointed out that εἶναι is articular because of the accusative article closest to that word. Someone else then defined the following ...
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102 views

Is there a Greek word matching the concept of “hate” (unlike Luke 14.26)?

I have read the questions and answers regarding Luke 14:26 and grasp how "hate" is being used. NASB If anyone comes to Me, and does not hate his own father and mother and wife and children and ...
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John 15:16 Exogete of ΕΘΗΚΑ

John 15:16a "You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you so that you might go and bear fruit—fruit that will last" The word used, ΕΘΗΚΑ, can be translated to appointed/ordained. Is this ...
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Greek text of Romans 8:28

Is there a Greek word for 'things', as in Romans 8:28? And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.
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Is NLT rendering of εἰ μὴ in Gal. 1:19 correct?

In the NLT we see a very explicit rendering of εἰ μὴ as an exception: NLT Gal. 1:19 The only other apostle I met at that time was James, the Lord’s brother. Is this the correct? Does εἰ μὴ in Gal. ...
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In Phil 2:12, How should this Passage be Translated?

Question In Phil 2:12, How should this Passage be Translated? "Out" does not seem to belong in the translation. Phil 2:12, NASB - 12 So then, my beloved, just as you have always obeyed, not as ...
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114 views

What is the correct translation and meaning of Matt. 11:19?

Matt. 11:19 says,(KJV) " The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her ...
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In the context of 2 Corinthians 7, does soteria (σωτηρία) in verse 10 refer to salvation or sanctification?

2 Corinthians 7:10 For the sorrow that is according to the will of God produces a repentance without regret, leading to salvation, but the sorrow of the world produces death. (NASB) Reading this ...
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Rev 20:7-8 Syntax: Gog and Magog in apposition to what?

Revelation of John 20:7-8 SBLGNT 7 Καὶ ὅταν τελεσθῇ τὰ χίλια ἔτη, λυθήσεται ὁ Σατανᾶς ἐκ τῆς φυλακῆς αὐτοῦ, 8 καὶ ἐξελεύσεται πλανῆσαι τὰ ἔθνη τὰ ἐν ταῖς τέσσαρσι γωνίαις τῆς γῆς, τὸν Γὼγ ...
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In 1 Cor 13:10, What does “The Perfect” Refer to?

Question: In 1 Cor 13:10, what does "The Perfect, (τὸ τέλειον)" refer to, and how would it have understood at the time it was written--not a hundred years later? 1 Cor. 13:10, NASB - 10 but when ...
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Any attestation of “century” as a meaning of “aion” around the time of Christ?

A professor (of Mathematics) from Greece told me the word αἰών means "century." Of course we know its derivatives (such as αἰώνιος) have a range of meaning in the New Testament and the Septuagint ...
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In Hebrews 9:22, How Should “Almost” be Interpreted, and What does it Apply to?

NOTE: This is a linguistic/syntax question--and not looking for insight into the doctrinal origins. Question: Regardless if the resulting interpretation is "Traditional" or "Doctrinally Consistent", ...
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Ephesians 1:12 - Translation of “προηλπικότας”

I'm a super-newbie to translating NT Greek, so please be gentle. I'm curious about how to translate "προηλπικότας", found in Ephesians 1:12. A couple of translations: ESV: "were the first to hope" ...
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Translating κυριακὸν and κυριακῇ as an adjective (dominical) instead of indicating belonging

A translation of the bible in Spanish (La Biblia Textual - 3ra Edición) translates: κυριακὸν δεῖπνον = cena dominical (dominical supper) — 1 Corinthians 11:20 and κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ = día ...
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Best Septuagint, Masoretic, and Aramaic texts into one English version?

Is there an English version Bible that has the best and oldest translations of the Septuagint and the Masoretic and the Aramaic texts all combined into one translation?
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Hebrew-to-Greek translation of birth narrative's “virgin” [duplicate]

I've been going through a list of words and phrases that were possibly mistranslated from Hebrew to Greek, Old Testament to New Testament. The one that stood out to me with great significance is how ...
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101 views

Matt 16:18 gates of hades will not “withstand” or “overcome” it - which one?

Basically most translations say: "gates of Hades will not overpower [the church]", one translation (Aramaic Bible in Plain English) says "gates of Sheol will not withstand it". My understanding of ...
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29 views

The Greek origin of the New Testament [duplicate]

Today mainstream scholars think the New Testament has been written in Greek. What are their arguments?
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Should Matthew 28:17b be understood in a “partitive” or “inclusive” sense?

There are two distinct linguistic issues in the latter part of Matthew 28:17, which reads this way (NA28 = SBL GNT = UBS4) - καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν προσεκύνησαν,a οἱ δὲ ἐδίστασαν. kai idontes auton ...