Koiné (from κοινή, "common") Greek was the form of post-classical Greek spoken and written in Hellenistic and Roman antiquity. It is the language of the Septuagint (LXX), Christian New Testament, and most early Christian theological writings.

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Meaning of “ἄρτιος”(artios) in II Tim 3:17

II Tim 3:17 says, "ἵνα ἄρτιος ᾖ ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ ἄνθρωπος πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἐξηρτισμένος".(TR Stephanus-1550) "That complete might be the of God man towards every work good, having been fully ...
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Hebrews 12:2 - Any Other Translations For “Enduring” the Cross?

Question In Hebrews 12:2, are there any alternate translation choices for endured, (ὑπομένω) -- that connote "Firmly Resolved to Face", as in the sense of bearing down to face a profound challenge -- ...
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Septuagintal Greek in the Lukan Infancy Narratives

I've been reading a number of literary/narrative studies on Luke lately and nearly all mention that after the introduction, Luke adopts a style of Greek reminiscent of the Septuagint in his telling of ...
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What is the meaning of εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα in 2 Tim 2:26 - the will of the devil, or the will of God?

Does the following phrase εἰς τὸ ἐκείνου θέλημα refer to the will of God or the will of the devil? 2 Tim 2:26 (NA28) καὶ ἀνανήψωσιν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ διαβόλου παγίδος, ἐζωγρημένοι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ ...
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Why is “christou” translated “God” in KJV Romans 10:17?

I was actually looking up the verse for another question I might ask about rhema (actually rēmatos) "hearing, and hearing by..." but I noticed that though I had memory of it saying "the word of God", ...
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36 views

Define “being” in regards to Acts 17:28

Acts 17:22-28, NRSV: Then Paul stood in front of the Areopagus and said, "Athenians, I see how extremely religious you are in every way. For as I went through the city and looked carefully at the ...
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41 views

Can “many days” represent a period as long as three years in Acts 9:23?

In Acts 9:1-22, we see Paul's conversion and his subsequent ministry in Damascus. In Acts 9:23, the ESV says, When many days had passed, the Jews plotted to kill him. After this, Paul escaped ...
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What does it mean to “assembling of ourselves together” in Hebrews 10:25?

In Hebrews 10:25 we read Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching. (KJV) The ...
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40 views

Interpreting “psyche” as “soul” [closed]

In the New Testament the Greek term "psyche" often, if not always, gets translated as "soul." Would the original author using that term have meant "psyche" like we mean it today? Or, more precisely, ...
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57 views

In 1 Corinthians 2, who do the “we” passages refer to?

My bible study teacher claims all the "we" passages in 1 Corinthians 2 refer to the apostles specifically, not to believers in general. The natural man is not a man without the Spirit, but a man ...
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How does the translation of γενόμενον as “made (of)” imply a previous state of existence?

The Pulpit Commentary* says that the word γενόμενον (KJV: made) in the phrase γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός (made of a woman) in Galatians 4:4 implies a previous state of existence, whereas "born" (so NASB, ...
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“I am the Christ” vs. “I am he” in the Synoptics (Matt 24:5 // Mark 13:6 // Luke 21:8)

In a prior Q&A, we discussed the Semitic background of Jesus' statements recorded in the Gospels as ἐγώ εἰμι (= I am [he]). My understanding based on the answer there and a follow-up Q&A was ...
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92 views

What word comprises the subject of the second clause of 1 John 4:8?

1 John 4:8 reads in the NIV, Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love. However this translation reverses the order of the words of the second clause in the original Greek: ...
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What does it mean “to quench” in 1 Thessalonians 5:19?

In 1 Thessalonians 5:19 we read: Quench not the Spirit. (KJV) According to Strong's, "Quench" is the word 4570 σβέννυμι, which means "I extinguish, quench, I suppress, thwart." The dictionary ...
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What scripture is the author of 1 Tim 5:18 referencing?

1 Timothy 5:17-18 states Elders who provide effective leadership must be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who work hard in speaking and teaching. For the scripture says, ...
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Son of a snake or illegitimate son of a snake?

In a lecture before the Biblical Archeology Society and on page 123 of Social-science Commentary on the Gospel of John Dr. Richard L. Rohrbaugh (and Dr. Bruce J. Malina) make the claim that verses ...
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In 1 Cor. 10:27, is the apostle Paul alluding to Exo. 34:15 concerning an idolatrous feast to a heathen god?

In 1 Cor. 10:27, it is written, 27 If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake. (KJV, ...
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In 1 John 2:27, what is the meaning of the phrase τὸ χρίσμα?

In 1 John 2:27, it is written, But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is ...
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In Heb. 9:14, what is the meaning of the phrase πνεύματος αἰωνίου?

In Heb. 9:14, it is written, How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living ...
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In Rom. 1:4, what is the meaning of the phrase πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης?

In Rom. 1:4, it is written, And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead: (KJV, 1769) τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ...
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Does Romans 4:17 speak of God calling things into existence?

Rom 4:16-17: That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his offspring — not only to the adherent of the law but also to the one who ...
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Why does biblehub.com translate κεφαλῆς of I Corinthians 11:4 as “[his] head”?

Why does Biblehub translate κεφαλῆς in I Corinthians 11:4 as "[his] head" the morphology states N-GFS? Why not "[her] head"?
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231 views

What does “Christian” mean (Acts 11:26)?

The word "Christian" is first used in Acts 11:26. and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. So for a whole year Barnabas and Saul met with the church and taught a significant number of ...
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79 views

Can “him” in Revelation 1:1 refer to John?

Revelation 1:1 (ESV) reads: The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant ...
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What is the significance of τὴν κατατομήν in Phil 3:2? [duplicate]

The Apostle Paul makes several references to circumcision throughout his epistles. However, in his epistle to the Philippians, he uses two different words for circumcision as the following two verses ...
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107 views

Was Zechariah simply mute, or deaf as well?

In Luke 1 (ESV), Zechariah the priest is rendered mute for his lack of faith: 19 And the angel answered him, “I am Gabriel. I stand in the presence of God, and I was sent to speak to you and to ...
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49 views

A manger vs The manger in Luke 2

Does the Greek specifically say "a manger" or does it say "the manger" in Luke 2:7,12,16? Wondering if it, by chance, denotes a specific manger as opposed to any manger. In other words, would the ...
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In Mark 3, is it Jesus' family or friends who try to take him away

Mark 3:21 NLT "When his family heard what was happening, they tried to take him away. “He’s out of his mind,” they said." IN other versions it says "own people" or "friends" The greek was not very ...
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What is the significance of omitting the definite article before the name Jesus in Mark 1:9?

Robert M. Price points out in The Christ Myth and Its Problems that Mark 1:9 omits the definite article [ὁ, tō, etc] before the name of Jesus, in contrast to the almost universal practice elsewhere in ...
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108 views

What is the difference between en/eis for Pauline “Faith in Christ” phrases?

Paul has several different phrases which all translate "Faith in Christ". This question pertains to the difference in meaning for faith in Christ where the English word "in" has a direct Greek word, ...
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Matt. 5:28: αὐτὴν or αὐτῆς as the object of τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι?

The Textus Receptus (1550, Estienne) has the pronoun αὐτῆς as the object of the infinitive τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι, while the NA28 has αὐτὴν. Grammatically, which is the preferred reading? Which manuscripts ...
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Is there any significance to using φάγω vs ἐσθίω?

Matthew (for one example) uses two different words for eating, and I'm trying to figure out if there's any difference in meaning. In Matthew 12:1, he uses ἐσθίω: ...and His disciples were hungry, ...
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What is the best understanding of 'sober' (nephomen) in 1 Th 5:6 and 1 Th 5:8

Someone has posed to me that 'sober' in 1 Th 5:6-8 is nephomen, root nepho, which they say means to be without ANY alcohol. They are using this verse to base their understanding that any alcohol is ...
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Which idea for εἶδος is intended in 1 Thess 5:22?

Background In 1 Thessalonians 5:22, the Greek reads (no major textual variations): ἀπὸ παντὸς εἴδους πονηροῦ ἀπέχεσθε The word εἶδος (here in the singular genitive neuter εἴδους) is translated ...
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What sort of phrasing is “the many” in Romans 5?

Most English translations have something in Romans that is an interesting turn of phrase—at least to my ears it instinctively makes sense but at the same time it in more at home in a carefully worded ...
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65 views

Terminology of “goodness” in Romans 7

There are two different words translated "good" or "right" in Romans 7: ἀγαθός and καλός. I'm trying to determine whether there is any distinction intended. I realize that the "basic" sense (or at ...
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Does gēs in Matthew 24:30 refer to all the earth, or a particular location?

Matthew 24:30 (ESV), a part of the Olivet Discourse, reads: Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man ...
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Is the 'revelation OF or FROM Jesus Christ'? (Rev 1:1)

Before we select a canned interpretive model, shouldn't we first consider what is meant by Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ (Rev 1:1)? Does the Greek better support "revelation OF" or "revelation FROM" Jesus ...
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Harmonizing Matthew 10:10, Luke 9:3, Mark 6:8

Matthew 10:9-10 Do not get any gold or silver or copper to take with you in your belts - no bag for the journey or extra shirt or sandals or a staff, for the worker is worth his keep. (NIV) ...
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Could Philippians 4:3 refer to Paul's wife?

Philippians 4:3 reads: ναὶ ἐρωτῶ καὶ σέ, γνήσιε σύζυγε*, συνλαμβάνου αὐταῖς, αἵτινες ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ συνήθλησάν μοι μετὰ καὶ Κλήμεντος καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν συνεργῶν μου, ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐν βίβλῳ ζωῆς. ...
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Is there precedent (perhaps in Jewish tradition) for the usage of “Rabboni,” which is solely found consistently in John 10:26?

John 10:26 New International Version Jesus said to her, "Mary." She turned toward him and cried out in Aramaic, "Rabboni!" (which means "Teacher"). New Living Translation "Mary!" Jesus ...
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What does the Greek word ὁμοιοπαθής mean in Acts 14:15?

The Greek word ὁμοιοπαθής is a compound word. It came from two words: ὅμοιος (like/similar)and πάσχω (feelings/strong emotion). Why, then, the NASB translate it as 'of same nature' and why, then, the ...
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John 1:4, John 8:12 - Light of life or light of *a* life?

It feels a little strained but given the context I find "a life" makes more sense than "life" as I indicate in the brackets below. (ESV) In him was [associated with him was a] life, and the life ...
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103 views

Philippians 2:25 - What is the meaning of ἀπόστολον?

In Phil. 2:25, the Greek text states, Ἀναγκαῖον δὲ ἡγησάμην Ἐπαφρόδιτον τὸν ἀδελφὸν καὶ συνεργὸν καὶ συστρατιώτην μου ὑμῶν δὲ ἀπόστολον καὶ λειτουργὸν τῆς χρείας μου πέμψαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς TR, 1550 ...
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ἱλαστήριον outside the New Testament and Jewish/Christian Theology [duplicate]

Are you aware of the word ἱλαστήριον (hilasterion; propitiation) appearing anywhere outside the New Testament specifically among Classical or Pagan writers? If so, do any of these non-Jewish/Christian ...
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46 views

What does the Greek word μεριμνᾶτε mean in Philippians 4:6?

The ESV translation of Philippians 4:6 reads: Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. If the ...
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Luke 22:31-32 - What is the significance of ὑμᾶς?

In Luke 22:31-32, it is written, English Translation 31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you (ὑμᾶς), that he may sift you as wheat: 32 But I have prayed for ...
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Does those who obey him just mean believe (not reject him) in Hebrews 5:9

Does those who obey him just mean believe (not reject him) in Hebrews 5:9 Hebrews 5:9: And having been made perfect, He came to all those who obey Him, the source of eternal salvation. What ...
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In Hebrews 1:9 is it “above your companions” or “rather than your companions”?

Does the ISV have it right? All of the other translations I see have "above". Heb 1:8 ISV But about the Son he says, "Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, and the scepter of your kingdom is ...
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Matthew 3:4 - does ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ epexegetically modify τὸ ἔνδυμα αὑτοῦ ἀπὸ τριχῶν καμήλου?

The Greek text of Matt. 3:4: Αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Ἰωάννης εἶχεν τὸ ἔνδυμα αὑτοῦ ἀπὸ τριχῶν καμήλου, καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὑτοῦ ἡ δὲ τροφὴ αὐτοῦ ἦν ἀκρίδες, καὶ μέλι ἄγριον TR, 1550 Is it ...