The second book of the Hebrew Bible, starting with Israel in Egyptian slavery and ending with the building of the tabernacle in the desert.

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Is “kill” a valid translation for Exodus 20:13 (Thou shalt not kill)?

Exodus 20:13 (KJV) Thou shalt not kill. Many political statements have been made about this verse. This translation has been used by many to support their pacifist desires. However, it seems ...
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What's wrong with cooking a kid in its mother's milk?

In the Pentateuch there are at least three repetitions of the following prohibition: Exodus 23:19b (ESV) You shall not boil a young goat in its mother's milk. Exodus 34:26b (ESV) You ...
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What did the 70 elders see, if man can't see God and live?

Exodus 24:10 says, of the 70 elders who went up on the mountain with Moshe: וַיִּרְאוּ, אֵת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל and they saw the God of Israel Meanwhile, Exodus 33:20 says, when Moshe asks ...
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Why should an altar be made with uncut stone?

God told Moses that the altar must be made of unhewn stones: And if you make for Me an altar of stones, do not build it of hewn stones; for by wielding your tool upon them you have profaned ...
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Did Moses have an Egyptian name?

Moses got his name from Pharaoh's daughter: When the child grew older, she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter, and he became her son. She named him Moses, “Because,” she said, “I drew him out of ...
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630 views

What did Jesus likely say in John 8:58?

In John 8:58, the author quotes Jesus: . ..πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι ἐγὼ εἰμί (NA28) ...before Abraham was, I am (ESV) Many have understood this as a claim to divinity, and some translations render ...
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The lexicology of Pharaoh's heart

In the narrative of Exodus 4-14 (spanning from the time of Moses's initial assignment until the crossing of the Red Sea), there are three different verbs used to describe the action against and/or the ...
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What is the third Commandment referring to?

In Exodus 20:7 we read (what is commonly considered to be) the third Commandment: You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not leave him unpunished who takes His ...
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What does “Jealous” mean in Exodus 34:14?

Most translations seem to agree that "Jealous" is the best translation for this passage. For example: Exodus 34:14 (NASB) —for you shall not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is ...
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What evidence exists that supports the understanding of the Exodus as a deliverance metanarrative and not as a historical narrative?

Marcus Borg has proposed a "historical-metaphorical" reading of Exodus (particularly the narrative of the event itself) in which deliverance and salvation are established as key themes in a grand ...
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203 views

How did Aaron avoid Pharaoh?

The famous story of Moses in Exodus 2 shows how, as a baby, he avoided Pharaoh's demand that baby boys be put to death. Maybe it is somewhere in the text and I've missed it, but I'm wondering how ...
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What translation philosophies have cause such a wide variation in translation of *tachash* skins?

In Exodus (e.g.: 26:14), we learn one of the coverings for the tabernacle is to be made of "תחש" (tachash) skins. The translation of this term appears to be especially difficult or contentious as ...
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How would stoning of an adulterer actually be carried out under the Law of Moses?

How would stoning of an adulterer actually be carried out under the Law of Moses? In John Chapter 8 there is the familiar story of how Jesus prevented a stoning of a woman who had committed adultery. ...
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Exodus 21:22: is “mischief” related only to the mother or to the baby, too?

Exodus 21:22 (KJV): If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband ...
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Paul's knowledge of Jannes and Jambres the magicians of Egypt

Per Paul in: 2 Timothy 3:8 ESV Just as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so these men also oppose the truth, men corrupted in mind and disqualified regarding the faith. Which is cross ...
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Exodus 6:3 - what is the significance of God's different names in the Tanakh?

Exodus 6:3: And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob by the name of God Almighty, but by My name JEHOVAH was I not known to them. (KJV) This is a strange and unique verse in the ...
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What exactly did Moses do wrong at Meribah?

We read that God commanded Moses to speak to the rock at Meribah so that water could flow out of it. Instead, Moses struck the rock with his staff: Then Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly ...
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According to the original Hebrew, how did Moses's Red sea crossing look?

I heard a different viewpoint on the depiction of the whole red sea crossing than I am used to, and now I am wondering what the correct interpretation is. Instead of the sea splitting open and ...
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Does Moses Speak Broken Hebrew?

When translating Exodus, I became intimately familiar with every sentence (it is really a tremendous form of close reading), and I noticed something amazing. The cases where Moses speaks Hebrew, he ...
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Is the REB translation of Ex 11:1, comparing to a rejected bride, supported in the original language?

Exodus 11:1b in the Revised English Bible (REB) reads: When he finally lets you go, he will drive you out forcibly as a man might dismiss a rejected bride. The simile seems most unusual. Was it ...
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What does chamushim (“fifties”) mean in Exodus 13:18?

It is easy to imagine that this word would suggest "by fifties" or, more generally, in large groups, or even "in an regimented way like an army," but on what grounds do so many English versions turn ...
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The Ten Commandments were based on the Code of Hammurabi?

A topic that was discussed among peers was that the Ten Commandments of Christian and Jewish faith were based off the Code of Hammurabi. I looked into the Wikipedia article and was informed that ...
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Why does God say he only revealed his name, Yahweh, to Moses?

Responding the the meta call for contradiction In Exodus 6:2 we find the following quote: And God spoke to Moses and said to him I am Yahweh. And I showed to Abraham, to Isaac, and to ...
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101 views

What is the significance of cooking the passover lamb by fire rather than boiling?

What is the significance of cooking the passover lamb by fire rather than boiling? Exodus 12:8-9 They shall eat the flesh that night, roasted on the fire; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs ...
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Did Pharaoh drown with his army? Exodus 14

It is often assumed that the Pharaoh of the Exodus was drowned with his army. This has affected attempts to identify the specific Pharaoh of the Exodus. However, is such a claim true? I see a few ...
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Why is Moses' reference to God's promise in Exodus 32 effective?

Exodus 32:9-14 (NIV quoted): 9 “I have seen these people,” the LORD said to Moses, “and they are a stiff-necked people. 10 Now leave me alone so that my anger may burn against them and that I may ...
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1answer
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Why was crocodile (תנין) from Exodus 7:10 translated as snake or serpent?

In Exodus, chapter 7, verse 10, Aaron throws his staff of the ground in front of Pharaoh and it becomes a תנין in the Hebrew Bible as well as the Leningrad Codex. The Septuagint translates it as ...
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290 views

What's behind the difference between the Greek and Hebrew of Exodus 21?

In Exodus 21:22-25, the consequences for hitting a pregnant woman are discussed. But the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint seem to differ. The MT refers to harm to the child, while the LXX refers to ...
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322 views

Why is the law about cooking a goat in mother's milk listed with instructions about feasts?

As this question notes, the law concerning cooking a young goat in its mother's milk appears three times in Torah: Exodus: 23:19, Exodus 34:26, and Deuteronomy 14:21. It's placement in Deuteronomy ...
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Does the Hebrew word “olam“ mean “forever” in Leviticus 23:41?

Several passages refer to keeping a feast as a statute forever. For instance, Exodus 12:14 reads: “This day shall be for you a memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord; ...
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1answer
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Why does Exodus 3 refer to “the angel of the LORD”?

Exodus 3:2 (ESV): And the angel of the LORD (malʾak yhwh) appeared to [Moses] in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. It seems pretty clear from what follows that the individual in the ...
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What is the significance of touching Moses' feet with his son's foreskin in Exodus 4:25?

In Exodus 4:25 we read Then Zipporah took a flint and cut off her son's foreskin and touched Moses' feet with it and said, "Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me!" (ESV) What is the ...
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“Death angel” or “destroyer” or “destruction” in Exodus 12:23?

In Exodus 12, the Israelites were instructed to put blood on their doors, to protect them from the death of the firstborn that the Egyptians would suffer. In most of Exodus 12, it sounds as though ...
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2answers
224 views

What does Exodus 26:27 say?

I was reading through Exodus the other day and thought that the translation of Exodus 26:26-27 was odd. OSB: "You shall make bars of incorruptible wood: five for the posts on one side of the ...
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Can the Exodus conflict be read as a conflict between God and the god(s) of Egypt?

In the ancient Egyptian religion, the Pharaoh is the son of Ra. Regarding this particular god and others in Egypt, we read the following in the Book of Exodus. Exodus 12:12 (NASB) 12 For I will ...
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100 views

Did Ezekiel intend to contradict Exodus 20?

From the Decalogue, Exodus 20:5 (ESV): You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and ...
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604 views

Did God make an idol?

In the Decalogue God forbids the making and or worshiping of images in the form of anything in the created order. And God spoke all these words: “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of ...
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“Pass over” or “cover over” in Exodus 12?

Exodus 12:13b (ESV) And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt. Exodus 12:13b (BHS) וְרָאִ֨יתִי֙ ...
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Who are the “third and fourth generation” in Exodus 20:5?

“You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. You shall not bow ...
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Is Exodus 21:21 about a dead slave or one who survives?

Exodus 21:20-21 provides provisions to avenge the maltreatment of a slave: When a man strikes his slave, male or female, with a rod and the slave dies under his hand, he shall be avenged. But if ...
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1answer
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What did Moses do at Horeb in the first place?

I was reading Exodus 3:1: Now Moses was shepherding the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the desert and came to the mountain of ...
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Why is the genealogy of Moses placed in the middle of his life story?

The placement of the genealogy of Moses and Aaron, beginning at Exodus 6:14, appears to be a bit odd at first glance. One might expect it to be placed at Moses' birth or maybe his death, but instead ...
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What is the significance of Moses being called a “bridegroom of blood?”

In Exodus 4:24–26 the story is recounted of Moses' failure or delay in circumcising his son, and Zipporah stepping in herself to perform the right, saving Moses' life. I am aware some theologians ...
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Did Pharoah have free will?

Pharoah starts by hardening his own heart, but then God hardens it (here is the list of verses). Did God remove Pharoah's free will?
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Moses' manufacture of the “bronze serpent” - what bronze?

In Numbers 21:9 it says: So Moses made a bronze snake and put it on a pole, so that if a snake had bitten someone, when he looked at the bronze snake he lived. [NET] Where would Moses probably ...
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What is the meaning of “Jealous” in Exodus 20:5?

I asked this question on Christianity Stack Exchange. Exodus 20:5 NIV You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the ...
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Why does the YLT render “thunder” as “voices” in Exodus 20:18?

Most modern translations of Exodus 20:18a render it something like the ESV (all emphasis mine): Now when all the people saw the thunder and the flashes of lightning and the sound of the trumpet ...
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Is God still at war with Amalek?

After they are defeated by the Israelites at Rephidim, God promises unending judgement on Amalek in Exodus 17: 14Then the Lord said to Moses, “Write this as a memorial in a book and recite it in ...
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Are the rings for carrying the incense altar pure gold?

In Exodus we read about the structure of the altar for burning incense: You shall make an altar for burning incense; make it of acacia wood. It shall be a cubit long and a cubit wide—it ...
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Does God stand beside the angel in the burning bush?

I am reading in the book of Exodus chapter 3 (KJV) about the angel of the Lord appearing to Moses in the burning bush.It is written, Exodus 3:2 And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a ...