The second book of the Hebrew Bible, starting with Israel in Egyptian slavery and ending with the building of the tabernacle in the desert.

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The lexicology of Pharaoh's heart

In the narrative of Exodus 4-14 (spanning from the time of Moses's initial assignment until the crossing of the Red Sea), there are three different verbs used to describe the action against and/or the ...
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Can the Exodus conflict be read as a conflict between God and the god(s) of Egypt?

In the ancient Egyptian religion, the Pharaoh is the son of Ra. Regarding this particular god and others in Egypt, we read the following in the Book of Exodus. Exodus 12:12 (NASB) 12 For I will ...
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Why is the law about cooking a goat in mother's milk listed with instructions about feasts?

As this question notes, the law concerning cooking a young goat in its mother's milk appears three times in Torah: Exodus: 23:19, Exodus 34:26, and Deuteronomy 14:21. It's placement in Deuteronomy ...
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Was Israel to be without heating or an ability to cook food on sabbath? (Exodus 35:2-3)

Ex. 35:2-3   “For six days work may be done, but on the seventh day you shall have a holy day, ba sabbath of complete rest to the LORD; whoever does any work on it shall be put to death. “You shall ...
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“Those who hate me” in Exodus 20:5

Exodus 20:5b (WLC | ESV) : כִּ֣י אָֽנֹכִ֞י יְהוָ֤ה אֱלֹהֶ֙יךָ֙ אֵ֣ל קַנָּ֔א פֹּ֠קֵד עֲוֺ֨ן אָבֹ֧ת עַל־בָּנִ֛ים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁ֥ים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִ֖ים לְשֹׂנְאָֽ֑י for I the LORD your God am a ...
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Is the Destroyer of Exodus 12:23 the same as that of Revelation 9:11?

In the Old Covenant narrative of the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt, Yahweh tells Moses to instruct each Hebrew to paint the blood of the passover lamb on the doorposts so that the destroying angel ...
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Is there any evidence that 'knei bosem' is cannabis or ganja?

Some sites claim that kaneh bosem from Exodus 30:23 is ganja. I've seen this verse translated variously as: fragrant calamus aromatic cane (from cane balsm) sweet calamus fragrant reeds However, ...
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What is the difference between “the law” and “the commandment” given by God to Moses? (Exodus 24:12)

Exodus 24:12: The LORD said to Moses, "Come up to me on the mountain and wait there, that I may give you the tablets of stone, with the law and the commandment, which I have written for their ...
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In 1 Cor. 10:27, is the apostle Paul alluding to Exo. 34:15 concerning an idolatrous feast to a heathen god?

In 1 Cor. 10:27, it is written, 27 If any of them that believe not bid you to a feast, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking no question for conscience sake. (KJV, ...
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How do we know that the 'land' in Gen 15:13 is Egypt?

Genesis 15:13 (KJV) 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land [that is] not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred ...
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What is the significance of Moses being called a “bridegroom of blood?”

In Exodus 4:24–26 the story is recounted of Moses' failure or delay in circumcising his son, and Zipporah stepping in herself to perform the right, saving Moses' life. I am aware some theologians ...
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Did Ezekiel intend to contradict Exodus 20?

From the Decalogue, Exodus 20:5 (ESV): You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and ...
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Did Pharaoh drown with his army? Exodus 14

It is often assumed that the Pharaoh of the Exodus was drowned with his army. This has affected attempts to identify the specific Pharaoh of the Exodus. However, is such a claim true? I see a few ...
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132 views

Why does Exodus 3 refer to “the angel of the LORD”?

Exodus 3:2 (ESV): And the angel of the LORD (malʾak yhwh) appeared to [Moses] in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. It seems pretty clear from what follows that the individual in the ...
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254 views

Does the definite article 'the', occur in front of the name of God in the Hebrew language?

Or is the an interpolation from the English translators of the bible? I'm no Hebrew expert but I'm curious to know how the name was written and read in Hebrew. Was it the YAHWEH or just YAHWEH? ...
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Why is the genealogy of Moses placed in the middle of his life story?

The placement of the genealogy of Moses and Aaron, beginning at Exodus 6:14, appears to be a bit odd at first glance. One might expect it to be placed at Moses' birth or maybe his death, but instead ...
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554 views

What did Jesus likely say in John 8:58?

In John 8:58, the author quotes Jesus: . ..πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι ἐγὼ εἰμί (NA28) ...before Abraham was, I am (ESV) Many have understood this as a claim to divinity, and some translations render ...
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What does it means to have “uncircumcised lips”?

Twice in Exodus Moses declares that he has "uncircumcised lips." But Moses said to the LORD, “Behold, the people of Israel have not listened to me. How then shall Pharaoh listen to me, for I am of ...
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Where is the Wilderness of Sin and what is its significance

In Exodus 16:1, the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, and in Exodus 17:1 the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin. We are told this is between Elim and Sinai and ...
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Why isn't the Tetragrammaton used in Exodus 3:14?

I do not know Hebrew, but I've always been under the impression that the Tetragrammaton is a literal "I AM". Strongs: 1961 אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה http://biblehub.com/hebrew/1961.htm vs Strongs 3068 יְהֹוָה ...
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Who was Moses Father-in-law?

In re-reading through Exodus I came across 2 people that are called Moses' father-in-law Exodus 2:18-21 states it is Reuel: 2:18 So when they came home to their father Reuel... 2:21 Moses agreed ...
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According to the original Hebrew, how did Moses's Red sea crossing look?

I heard a different viewpoint on the depiction of the whole red sea crossing than I am used to, and now I am wondering what the correct interpretation is. Instead of the sea splitting open and ...
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10 Commandments: Ketubah or Suzerain

In Exodus 20, we are given the 10 commandments. Some have compared this gift of the 10 commandments to a Ketubah - a Jewish marriage contract, while others have compared this to a Suzerain Covenant ...
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The Ten Commandments were based on the Code of Hammurabi?

A topic that was discussed among peers was that the Ten Commandments of Christian and Jewish faith were based off the Code of Hammurabi. I looked into the Wikipedia article and was informed that ...
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The Pharaoh of the Exodus

Is there any textual evidence in Hebrew Bible or Christian New Testament that would identify the Pharaoh involved with Moses and the Exodus? Is there any textual evidence that would also correspond ...
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521 views

Exo. 32:20: Why did Moses make the Israelites drink the ground calf & water mixture?

In Exo. 32:20, it is written, And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strawed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of ...
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What's behind the difference between the Greek and Hebrew of Exodus 21?

In Exodus 21:22-25, the consequences for hitting a pregnant woman are discussed. But the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint seem to differ. The MT refers to harm to the child, while the LXX refers to ...
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326 views

How does one interpret the phrase “in the water under the earth” in Exodus 20:4?

In Exodus 20:4 there is a phrase בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ that is often translated as "in the water under the earth". What location is this a reference to?
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What translation philosophies have cause such a wide variation in translation of *tachash* skins?

In Exodus (e.g.: 26:14), we learn one of the coverings for the tabernacle is to be made of "תחש" (tachash) skins. The translation of this term appears to be especially difficult or contentious as ...
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Does Exodus 22:28 call for child sacrifice?

In Genesis, we see a motif of first-born sons being overly aggressive and ambitious. Kain slays Abel out of a jealous wrath. Firstborn Esau and Jacob have a long-running rivalry that ends with Jacob ...
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Exodus 21:24 - “Eye for an eye…hand for hand…foot for foot”

In Exodus 21:24, it is written, Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, KJV, 1769 עַיִן תַּחַת עַיִן שֵׁן תַּחַת שֵׁן יָד תַּחַת יָד רֶגֶל תַּחַת רָגֶל WLC Does the Law ...
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Exodus 16:34 - Does it state that there were more than just the two tablets of testimony in the Ark of the Covenant?

In Exo. 16:34, it is written, Aaron did just as the LORD had commanded Moses. He eventually placed it in the Ark of the Covenant—in front of the stone tablets inscribed with the terms of the ...
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Hebrews 11:27 - Meaning of «τὸν…ἀόρατον ὡς ὁρῶν ἐκαρτέρησεν»

In Heb. 11:27, it is written, Πίστει κατέλιπεν Αἴγυπτον μὴ φοβηθεὶς τὸν θυμὸν τοῦ βασιλέως τὸν γὰρ ἀόρατον ὡς ὁρῶν ἐκαρτέρησεν which the King James Version translated as, By faith he forsook ...
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“A mighty hand” in Exodus 3:19

Exodus 3:19 reads: וַאֲנִ֣י יָדַ֔עְתִּי כִּ֠י לֹֽא־יִתֵּ֥ן אֶתְכֶ֛ם מֶ֥לֶךְ מִצְרַ֖יִם לַהֲלֹ֑ךְ וְלֹ֖א בְּיָ֥ד חֲזָקָֽה׃ (WLC) But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless ...
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How should one read “Ark of the Covenant” in Exodus 25:22?

"There I will meet with you; and from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, I will speak to you about all that I will give you in commandment ...
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Why does God warn Moses to not allow the priests or the people to approach Sinai?

In Exodus 19, God describes a number of preparations that Moses should make before He will descend to the top of Mount Sinai. One of them is to cordon off an area around the mountain: You shall ...
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Sandals and Holy Ground

In Exodus 3, Moses is commanded to take off his shoes because he is standing on holy ground, yet before him is appearing an Angel of the LORD, not God himself (in contrast to Exodus 19 an onward where ...
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Why should an altar be made with uncut stone?

God told Moses that the altar must be made of unhewn stones: And if you make for Me an altar of stones, do not build it of hewn stones; for by wielding your tool upon them you have profaned ...
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Does Moses Speak Broken Hebrew?

When translating Exodus, I became intimately familiar with every sentence (it is really a tremendous form of close reading), and I noticed something amazing. The cases where Moses speaks Hebrew, he ...
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What is the significance of touching Moses' feet with his son's foreskin in Exodus 4:25?

In Exodus 4:25 we read Then Zipporah took a flint and cut off her son's foreskin and touched Moses' feet with it and said, "Surely you are a bridegroom of blood to me!" (ESV) What is the ...
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What is the third Commandment referring to?

In Exodus 20:7 we read (what is commonly considered to be) the third Commandment: You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not leave him unpunished who takes His ...
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Morality of God's commandment to kill rebels

What turns me down about God are 2 stories that I have readed on my bible. God hardening pharaoh's heart and punishing him because of it, and Levites killing his relatives Today I will talk about ...
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Is the REB translation of Ex 11:1, comparing to a rejected bride, supported in the original language?

Exodus 11:1b in the Revised English Bible (REB) reads: When he finally lets you go, he will drive you out forcibly as a man might dismiss a rejected bride. The simile seems most unusual. Was it ...
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548 views

Why does God seek to kill Moses in Exodus 4:24

Why does God attempt to kill Moses during his journey, in Exodus 4:24, if just three verses earlier he commanded him himself to undertake that journey? I searched and haven't found a clear reason why. ...
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104 views

Do the Mari or Armana documents substantiate the Exodus account of wandering in the desert?

I heard a verbal account of a historic source called the Mari documents that appear to be letters written from Egypt to Vassal Kings warning of the Habiru people—unreliable wandering gypsies who are a ...
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Is God still at war with Amalek?

After they are defeated by the Israelites at Rephidim, God promises unending judgement on Amalek in Exodus 17: 14Then the Lord said to Moses, “Write this as a memorial in a book and recite it in ...
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Exodus 21:22: is “mischief” related only to the mother or to the baby, too?

Exodus 21:22 (KJV): If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband ...
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Why is Moses' reference to God's promise in Exodus 32 effective?

Exodus 32:9-14 (NIV quoted): 9 “I have seen these people,” the LORD said to Moses, “and they are a stiff-necked people. 10 Now leave me alone so that my anger may burn against them and that I may ...
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Does the Hebrew word “olam“ mean “forever” in Leviticus 23:41?

Several passages refer to keeping a feast as a statute forever. For instance, Exodus 12:14 reads: “This day shall be for you a memorial day, and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord; ...
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What was written on the stone tablets?

The wikipedia page, and most other depictions of the tablets are that they are of the ten commandments. When I read Exodus, it seems at least to me a little less clear as to what exactly was written, ...