Questions regarding the Aramaic sections of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and the translations known as the Targums.

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28
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What language did Jesus commonly speak?

According to Mark 15:34 (ESV): And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” Jesus spoke Aramaic ...
18
votes
5answers
2k views

What arguments exist that would refute the theory concerning Aramaic primacy of the New Testament?

Many Nestorian and some Seventh Day Adventist scholars assert that the New Testament was originally written in Aramaic (such as Paul Younan and George Lamsa). What scholarly arguments exist that would ...
16
votes
4answers
31k views

Translation of “Hosanna” (ὡσαννά)

What does "Hosanna" (ὡσαννά) mean (as it appears in the Gospels)? What is its etymology/derivation from Hebrew/Aramaic?
16
votes
6answers
14k views

Translation of “abba” (Αββα, אבא)

What is the best English translation of abba (Greek: Αββα, Aramaic: אבא) such as in Romans 8:15? What are its senses in the original languages, and are those best captured by father, dad, daddy, or ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is Jer 10:11 written in Aramaic?

There is one verse in the Book of Jeremiah written in Aramaic; in fact, this verse stands alone as a "one-verse paragraph" in the Masoretic text. :יא. כִּדְנָה תֵּאמְרוּן לְהוֹם אֱלָהַיָּא דִּי ...
11
votes
2answers
642 views

“which translated means…”

I am told that many scholars believe that the words of Jesus which we have presented to us in Greek were originally spoken in Aramaic. What confuses me then is why there are instances in the Greek ...
10
votes
2answers
249 views

Daniel 7:27 translation

I hope someone can help me with this one. Question - What is the correct translation of end of Daniel 7:27? Is it Him (God) or it (kingdom)? As much as I looked, all English translations say Him - ...
9
votes
3answers
17k views

Given the differences between Hebrew and Aramaic, how are the Aramaic sections identified?

There are a handful of Aramaic passages in the Bible; notably in Daniel and Ezra. Since the writing system of these two was the same, how are the Aramaic sections identified?
9
votes
1answer
62 views

Is the Aramaic word “ara” in Daniel 2:39 a paranomasia (pun)?

Daniel 2:39a (NASB) says: "After you, there will arise another kingdom inferior [ara] to you ...." The kingdom referred to here is indicated by the silver breast and arms of the statue that ...
9
votes
5answers
9k views

Why is Daniel Chapter 2:4 - 7:28 written in Aramaic?

Question is straightforward: Why is part of Daniel written in Hebrew but a middle section written in Aramaic?
8
votes
2answers
465 views

The name of God in ancient manuscripts

I came across the following from an unofficial/unverified source: Yahu An alternative spelling and pronunciation of Yahweh, found (spelled YHW) on a circa 800 B.C.E. ostracon from Kuntillet ...
8
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2answers
3k views

What portions of the New Testament are purported to have originally been written in Aramaic?

I am wondering what portions of the New Testament are purported to have originally been written in Aramaic, and by whom. I am aware that Seventh Day Adventist and Nestorian scholars often assert ...
7
votes
2answers
933 views

Why is “maranatha” in 1 Cor 16:22?

1 Cor 16:22 reads: εἴ τις οὐ φιλεῖ τὸν κύριον, ἤτω ἀνάθεμα. μαράνα θά. NA28 If anyone has no love for the Lord, let him be accursed. Our Lord, come!ESV From what I gather, there is some ...
7
votes
2answers
216 views

What does “talitha cumi” mean?

In Mark 5:41, Jesus speaks in Aramaic as he resurrects a young girl: Taking her by the hand he said to her, “Talitha cumi,” which means, “Little girl, I say to you, arise.” Other translations ...
7
votes
2answers
520 views

In the Peshitta NT, what was the original meaning of the word often translated “first day of the week”?

Is there an Aramaic word for "week" different from "Sabbath?" Is the word for Sabbath used in the Peshitta New Testament in the following passages: But on the eve of the Sabbath, when the first ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Where can I find Targum Neofiti online?

I'm looking for Targum Neofiti online in the original Hebrew/Aramaic lettering. Does anyone know where I can find it?
6
votes
3answers
389 views

Why is 'Sabbath' often plural in the Greek text (both LXX and NT) yet translated as if it were singular? [closed]

Why is 'Sabbath' often plural in the Greek text (both LXX and NT) yet translated as if it were singular? In my research online, I've been finding that this issue is hotly debated between Seventh Day ...
6
votes
2answers
375 views

In the Peshitta, what is the difference between the original word translated “Sabbath” and that translated “week?”

In Matthew 28:1 of the Aramaic Peshitta text, the word translated "Sabbath" and the word translated "week" appear similar but with slight variation. Does anyone know what the significance is of the ...
6
votes
1answer
85 views

Hebrew translations of the Aramaic Texts

Several sections of the Old Testament are written in Aramaic. With the Old Testament, we will often examine translations like the Greek Septuagint, the Aramaic Targumim, and the Syriac Peshitta in ...
5
votes
1answer
66 views

Our Father in Heaven prayer — prose or verse?

I happened to read a write-up presented by Rev. Jack Kilmon, Bible scholar and researcher in his website "Scriptorium". Kilmon has attempted a retro-translation of the 'Our Father in Heaven' prayer ...
5
votes
1answer
416 views

What does the abbreviation “Tg. Ps.-J” mean?

I'm writing a biblical Hebrew exegesis research paper and I'm struggling to understand what a particular abbreviation means: "Tg. Ps.-J." It's in the Word Biblical Commentary 6A on Deuteronomy. I've ...
5
votes
1answer
529 views

Deliver us from “evil” or “the evil one” – help from the Semitists?

Matthew 6:13 ESV And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. But NIV And do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. UBS5 καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς ...
5
votes
2answers
370 views

Understanding the appropriation of Psalm 22:2 in the Gospel crucifixion accounts

In Matthew 27:46, the author quotes Jesus, first transliterating his words with Greek letter (NA28 | ESV): ηλι ηλι λεμα σαβαχθανι; Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani? He then translates into Greek: ...
4
votes
1answer
458 views

What is the name of Jesus in the Peshitta text?

In Matthew 1:21 what is the name of Jesus in the Peshitta text? Is it the same as the name given in Luke 3:29, Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8 which is rendered as Joshua in English?
3
votes
1answer
68 views

Joseph's proclamation while riding in the chariot in Egypt

Genesis 41:43 contains a verse describing Joseph riding in one of Pharaoh's chariots and being proclaimed as a leader. Since I began reading Tanach more than a decade ago, the grammar of this verse ...
2
votes
4answers
84 views

Why did the bystanders at the cross misunderstand Jesus in Matthew 27:46-47?

There's a (to me) peculiar passage in the passion account of Matthew. Matthew 27:46-47 From noon until three in the afternoon darkness came over all the land. About three in the afternoon Jesus ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Who's “they” in “they will mingle with the seed of men”?

From Daniel 2:43 (New King James) 43 As you saw iron mixed with ceramic clay, they will mingle with the seed of men; but they will not adhere to one another, just as iron does not mix with clay.
2
votes
0answers
61 views

What version of the Bible is translated closest to or directly from the original languages of the texts? [duplicate]

I have for some time now looked at many versions of the Bible to come to the conclusion that most of the translations that try to interpret the text from the original Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek ...
1
vote
1answer
183 views

Looking for electronic copies of the original Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic texts, and electronic translation/analyses databases to interpret them [closed]

If this question is worded poorly or could be rephrased, please do help me know how best to ask it. I am genuinely seeking the information outlined below, but I'm new here, so please forgive me if I ...
0
votes
1answer
179 views

Best Septuagint, Masoretic, and Aramaic texts into one English version?

Is there an English version Bible that has the best and oldest translations of the Septuagint and the Masoretic and the Aramaic texts all combined into one translation?
0
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1answer
78 views

Did the New Testament Writers Rely on the Hebrew Text?

Related: - Re. The Passover: Why do Christians Assert the Calendar Day Began at Sunset? 1. Question - a Reference Request Are there any textual evidences, (in the New Testament, and contemporary ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

The Lord's Prayer - Why do we ask to “lead us not into temptation”? Should it be “let us not enter into temptation”? [duplicate]

I've been doing a little reading on the history of The Lord's Prayer, and I came across a video and book by Dr. Rocco Errico, as well as "Holy Bible - From the Ancient Eastern Text" by George M. ...
0
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0answers
40 views

Historically have scholars always believed the NT was written in other than Greek? [duplicate]

It seems modern day bible scholars (the majority) believe the original NT was not written in Greek. Historically speaking has this view been the same or did authoritative scholars have different ...
-3
votes
1answer
2k views

Is the Valley of Hinnom adequately translated as hell?

Transliteration vs. Translation vs.Travesty vs. Allegory Gehenna or Valley of Hinnom or Djennem or Hell? Through the prophecy and book of Jeremiah the Valley of Hinnom (ge hinnom) east of Jerusalem ...