In Sensus Plenior the meaning of numbers is derived the same way as the meaning of any metaphor and follows the same restrictive rules.
The meanings of many numbers turns out to be different than in other systems.
1 - God
2 - a different dualism of earthly and heavenly where both are good except when the earthly is placed pre-eminent.
3 - a reference to the Trinity in one it's aspects. The Father speaks, the Son works, the Holy Spirit gives the increase or the life. We hear the word, understand the works, or are walking the life. Or we are deaf, blind, and lame.
4 - the four voices of God's revelation (King, Judge, Prophet, Priest)
5 - the nature of man
6 - God's tri-fold revelation of Himself in heaven and on earth, 2*3
7 - Completeness. 6 + 1 the unity or completeness of God's revelation of himself in heaven and on earth. Think of the candle with 3 + 3 + 1.
8 - the word in four voices in heaven and on earth.
9 - 8+1 the completeness of the word in heaven and on earth, 3*3 Each person of the God head is the fullness of the Trinity. 7+2 Christ with 2 natures is complete, etc.
10 - the dual-natured man, Christ
100 - the church
1000 - king
I appreciate the question about 11 and Jon's answer concerning 12. They made me look at the details.
When Jacob wrestled with God he represents Christ at Gethsemane and on the cross. He sent his 11 sons away (Benjamin was not born yet). Jesus only had 11 disciples. Judas was not one of them. And they left him.
There were only 12 at the last supper for the 'Lord's supper', 11 disciples and Jesus. Jesus himself is one of the 12, just as Jacob wrestling with God as the Christ type is one of the twelve within the scope of that picture.
Benjamin was born 'out of season' killing his mother in the process. Paul (from the tribe of Benjamin) was born out of season. He was not there for Gethsemane and the cross with the other 11, and he was killing his mother (the church) when he was born again.
Joseph, the Christ type had eleven stars make obeisance to him in his dream. Once again Christ and the eleven make 12. Ge 37.9
There are 11 curtains of goat's hair covering (surrounding) the tabernacle. (Ex 26.8) Just as there were 11 disciples who surrounded Jesus.
11 bullocks are offered on the third day of dedicating the tabernacle because they were being made to Jesus, the 12th as in Joseph's dream.
11 isn't 12 missing 1. 11 plus Jesus makes 12. He is one of us. He is the Lion of Judah. He is the chief cornerstone, building with us.
In SP even the 'incidental' occurrences must have the same meaning, so I will go back and flush some of them out. This answer just picks the low hanging fruit.
It is said that the eleven day journey to Kadeshbarnea was one day short of entering the promised land (I have not verified this). If this is so it is a foreshadow that the 11 disciples 'didn't get it'.
Nu 14:11 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long will this people
provoke me? and how long will it be ere they believe me, for all the
signs which I have shewed among them?
Mt 17:17 Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse
generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you?
bring him hither to me.
Mr 9:19 He answereth him, and saith, O faithless generation, how long
shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him unto me.
So here the eleven without Christ still represents the 11 disciples. With Christ they would have been in the promised land, the building would have been built. Jon's 'one short' answer is correct IF the one short is Christ, not Judas.
(This part of the answer is given based on unverified facts concerning the location.)
------ addition 2
Jehoiakim and Zedekiah ruled 11 years. This means that the king as a type of Christ refers to Jesus prior to the cross. The unfolding stories of their reigns should confirm this.
----- addition 3
In answer to the direct question "Are there any systems of Hermeneutics that believe this to be both meaningful and intentional?"
By the numbers
Hebrew letters have numeric values. There is no letter for eleven, the numbers jumping from 10 to 20 in the sequence.
10 + 1 are the letters Yod and aleph spelling Yah (or God).
This may imply that God is hidden in the 11 disciples, the eleven tribes, etc. in the same manner that Light and Life are hidden in Elohim.
Yes. Numbers in sensus plenior have metaphoric meaning derived from a strict set of rules which were put there by God as part of the shadows of Christ. Other systems of numerology may have meanings that are close or quite distant from those found in SP.
Though it is often said that there are ten sefirot or channels of Divine energy, there are actually eleven, but the sefirah of keter and da'at are actually one, representing differing dimensions of a single force. There are eleven names of Godwhich are associated each with a particular channel of energy.
Ginsberg explains that eleven is related to "wits" , or that which is uncountable.