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When Jesus was "presented" in Jerusalem by Mary and Joseph, the sacrifice made was "a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons":

Luke 2: 22 When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the law of the Lord, “Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord”), 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, “A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.”

But in Matthew when the Magi found Jesus:

Matthew 2: 11 They came into the house and saw the young child with Mary, his mother, and they fell down and worshiped him. Opening their treasures, they offered to him gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh.

Why such an offering when they were given such gifts?

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Perhaps the gifts of the Magi served to "tide them over" while Joseph looked for work in an unfamiliar city. In other words, they may have sold the gifts on the open market. Perhaps eBay! (a joke) – rhetorician Mar 1 '14 at 22:01
Here are "Two Turtle Doves." – Bagpipes Mar 2 '14 at 10:40

The wise men came after baby Jesus was presented in the temple.

If you see a harmony of the Gospels, like Study Resources :: Harmony of the Gospels, you will find that the wise men came long after Jesus was presented in the temple.

Presentation in the temple

A woman who bore a son was ceremonially unclean for forty days (twice that if she bore a daughter Leviticus 12:2-5), that is, she was not permitted to go to the temple or to engage in religious services with the congregation.

Luke 2:22-24 (NASB)
22 And when the days for their purification according to the law of Moses were completed, they brought Him up to Jerusalem to present Him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the Law of the Lord, "EVERY firstborn MALE THAT OPENS THE WOMB SHALL BE CALLED HOLY TO THE LORD"), 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to what was said in the Law of the Lord, "A PAIR OF TURTLEDOVES OR TWO YOUNG PIGEONS."

The wise men from the East

The wise men saw the star in the east, then went to Jerusalem, they asked, were sent, and finally arrived. So, that took time, possibly up to two years.

Matthew 2:16 (NASB)
Then when Herod saw that he had been tricked by the magi, he became very enraged, and sent and slew all the male children who were in Bethlehem and all its vicinity, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had determined from the magi.

On the other hand, the Mary's offering indicates that she and Joseph were poor. Joseph and Mary were very pious Jews so as not lied in his offering.

Matthew 1:19 (NASB)
And Joseph her husband, being a righteous man and not wanting to disgrace her, planned to send her away secretly.

Luke 2:38 (NASB)
And Mary said, “Behold, the bondslave of the Lord; may it be done to me according to your word.” And the angel departed from her.

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Excellent answer - to me, this provides a very clear link between the text and cultural history +1 – user3376 Mar 1 '14 at 11:10

The wisemen were not at the manger and Jesus' birth. They came later and found Mary and the baby in a home. At the time of his presentation at the temple, Mary and Joseph had not received the gift from the wiseman. It was probably within two years of his birth that the wiseman found him as Harod killed all the babies, 2 years and under around Bethlehem. When Jesus was presented at the temple, Mary and Joseph did not bring a lamb but two turtle doves and pigeons. This was a poor sacrifice but when they could afford at the time. The gift of the wisemen, given after this event, probably financed their flee into Egypt by night.

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Only the very poor were permitted to offer two doves or pigeons when presenting a newly born son at the temple, as Joseph and Mary do in Luke 2:22. On the other hand, the gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh would have made them quite rich. There are two possible reasons that Joseph and Mary only offered pigeons or doves. Either the magi had not yet brought their valuable gifts to Bethlehem, or the two nativity stories are independent accounts in which at least some details are not entirely historical.

A problem with the first option is that we are told the young family left Jerusalem after the presentation at the temple, returning to Nazareth and apparently never returning to Bethlehem, which indeed they had no reason to do. Implicitly, they remained in Nazareth, because we are told they travelled to Jerusalem each year for the Passover:

Luke 2:39-41: And when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth. And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him. Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.

Raymond E. Brown, in An Introduction to the New Testament, page 114, provides support for the second option, because he says Luke's infancy narrative is massively different from Matthew's and in details is virtually irreconcilable with it. There is no suggestion that the young couple had ever lived in Nazareth; in fact, quite the opposite. On returning from presumably a few years in Egypt, Joseph and Mary head back to their house in Bethlehem but, being warned by an angel, turn aside and travel to Galilee, which is beyond the reach of Archelaus. In Galilee, they went and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, a decision that Matthew says explains why Jesus is called a Nazarene:

Matthew 2:22-24: But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee: And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

In Matthew's account, the flight to Egypt was sudden and unexpected, so Joseph and Mary had no chance to present Jesus at the temple and make the offerings appropriate to their new economic status, and in any case they now knew that Jerusalem would be too dangerous a place to take Jesus.

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