What does Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 mean by “lie with”?
There are many Hebrew words that are translated in English “to lie with” that have multiple meanings…
Shekobeth used on the verses surrounding 18:22 that refer to bestiality and adultery literally and only means sexual intercourse. ( not used in 18:22 or 20:13).
Mishkab used in these verses to refer as a comparison to “Lying with a woman” has several definitions: Lying on a couch, laying on a bed, and lastly “Lying down in submission for sex.” It is states 46 times in 44 verses when speaking sexually, it always refers to a woman submitting to sex with a man. The word used to refer to a male lying with a male is Shakab and has many definitions. (can be found 213 times in 194 verses in the Bible.) 101 incidences used Shakab to simply mean “lie down to sleep.” 51 of the verses used Shakab as “to lie down in death.” There are 52 incidences in which Shakab is used in a verse which means “to MAKE ONE lie down” as well as sex by deceptive coercion which is descriptive is “sex by force” which by modern definition would be rape.
“Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie (Shakab) with him, that we may preserve offspring from our father.”
(Lot’s daughters intoxicated their father to rape him.)
“When Shechem...saw her, he took her and lay with her by force (shakab).”
(Shechem rapes Dinah)
“she called to the men of her household and said to them, “See, he has brought among us a Hebrew to laugh at us. He came in to me to lie (shakab) with me, and I cried out with a loud voice.”
(A woman falsely accuses Joseph of raping her.)
2 Samuel 13:14
“But he would not listen to her, and being stronger than she, he violated her and lay (Shakab) with her.”
(Amnon rapes his sister Tamar.)
“For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city shall be taken and the houses plundered and the women raped (Shakab).”
(Speaking of the rapes of women in opposing cities.)
“...for in her youth men had lain with her and handled her virgin bosom and poured out their whoring lust upon her.”
(Metaphorical rape of Jerusalem.)
“If there is a betrothed virgin, and a man meets her in the city and lies (Shakab) with her, 24 then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city, and you shall stone them to death with stones, the young woman because she did not cry for help though she was in the city, and the man because he violated his neighbor's wife. So you shall purge the evil from your midst.”
None of the verses above used shakab as meaning traditional intercourse.
“A man should not rape of force sex (shakab) upon another man just as a woman submits to sex (mishkab) with a man.”
denounces both rape and nonconsensual sex between two males.