In many verses in John 6, Jesus says "I will raise them up at the last day". Does that mean to literally "revived" the ones who ate his body and drank his blood? Or what does it mean? Thanks!
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The four instances of this clause in John 6 are:
The plain sense meaning of ἀνίστημι ('raise up') is "to cause to stand or be erect, raise, erect, raise up," generally in reference to images of deities or persons who are lying down (especially someone who was sick).1 However, it can also mean "to raise up by bringing back to life" and "to come back to life from the dead, rise up, come back from the dead."2
To shed further light on how John may be using the term in this context, we should examine other uses of the verb in his Gospel (we could also look in his other writings, but John only uses the verb in his Gospel). This leads us to four additional uses of the verb:
75% of these additional uses of ἀνίστημι are clearly in the context of raising from the dead, going so far as to specify that Lazarus would 'rise again in the resurrection on the last day' in 11:24 (ἀναστήσεται ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ), which is virtually identical language to that used in the four instances of ἀνίστημι in chapter 6.
Given these additional uses of ἀνίστημι by the author, the context of eternal life (ζωὴν αἰώνιον) in John 63, and the numerous teachings about the resurrection by Jesus4 (which was an existing teaching that was popular among the Pharisees in second-temple Judaism), it is most likely that the meaning intended is that of rising in the resurrection on the last day (ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ).
1 William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 83.
2 Ibid., 83.