The only thing I care to add to Affable Geek's fine answer is to cite the book of Job, where we read,
"Satan answered the LORD and said, 'Skin for skin? Yes, all that a man has he will give for his life. However, put forth Your hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh; he will curse You to Your face.' So the LORD said to Satan, 'Behold, he is in your power, only spare his life.' Then Satan went out from the presence of the LORD and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot to the crown of his head" (2:4-7)
I fully realize that Job, unlike the Corinthian who was guilty of incest, was blameless before the LORD (see 1:8 and 2:3). Nevertheless, the commonality between the two passages is neither accidental nor coincidental. While Job was not guilty of any particular sin for which the LORD loosed Satan upon his body, the sinner in Corinth was, and the common effect of Satan's efforts was to bring dis-ease to Job and possibly "the destruction of the flesh" to the excommunicated Corinthian (though we do know this for certain).
Both Job and the Corinthian were true believers, but God had His own sovereign purpose in allowing each one to experience the malignant influence of Satan. That common purpose, I suggest, was for the greater good of the men and the greater glory of God.
Of the two men, obviously Job's experiences have been much more perplexing and troubling to God's people for thousands of years. After all, we have an entire book devoted to Job's experiences but only a few verses devoted to the offending Corinthian! Moreover, Job was blameless before the LORD, and the Corinthian, clearly, was not.
If I were to summarize in précis form the primary difference between Job's experiences and the Corinthian's experience, it would be as follows:
Job was handed over to Satan for the purpose of testing his faith in Almighty God and in God's sovereign purposes even in the absence of a clear explanation from God, whereas the Corinthian sinner was handed over to Satan for several purposes: church discipline, church cleansing (i.e., ridding the local church of the leaven of blatant sin), and punishment with a view to repentance and restoration.
Interestingly, even blameless Job repented in dust and ashes, realizing he had spoken rashly of "things too wonderful for [him]" (see 42:1-6). As for the Corinthian, we obviously do not know whether he repented or not. Perhaps one day in heaven we will find out!