What God created at genesis 1:14 "Let there be lights in the firmament of the Heaven" if He had created the Heaven (and the Earth) at Gen' 1:1?
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When it says that God created the heaven and the earth in Gen. 1:1, it is more or less a heading for what entails. That is to say, God did not actually create the heaven and earth at that point.
The creation of the heaven (firmament) actually occurs in Gen. 1:6-8:
As for the earth, its creation is a bit unorthodox.
At that point, a premieval earth appears from the water.
To answer your question, when God created the heaven (the firmament) (vv. 6-7), it was an empty expanse of atmospheric gas. There's no need to assume that it contained any of the host of heaven (Deut. 4:19), such as the moon, stars, or the sun.
while your answer is logical, it presents a problem because the creation is set in periods of "days", and for us a day is marked with a cycle of the sun/moon. another question you could ask, is that light was created on the first day (genesis 1:3), and what is that light if not the sun?
i found a very interesting page on the web you may want to see. here is my understanding of this topic.
there are four ways to look at the 6 days of creation:
There are three passages in the New Testament that throw light on the Genesis account.
The first one is from Paul.
Please note that Paul is drawing a direct parallel to Gen 1:1 with spiritual death. In other words, when we receive the free gift of eternal life, we are "born again." Paul is comparing our new birth with the earth, which was in darkness when called forth the light.
The second verse comes from Hebrews.
The writer is alluding the SECOND removal of created things. That is, the earth will be shaken for the SECOND time, and thus all created things will be removed from the earth. Thus the flood of Noah was not in mind, since sea creatures were never "removed" from the earth -- it was only those creatures with "breath in their nostrils" that were removed from the earth (with the exception of the occupants of Noah's ark).
In other words, there is a "gap" between Gen 1:1 and Gen 1:2, which could have spanned a bazillion years. That is, God created the heavens and the earth in Gen 1:1. From that point onward, the earth at some point was "shaken" and ALL created things were REMOVED from the earth. This was the FIRST removal to which the author of Hebrews was referring.
This removal therefore left the earth "dead," which is why Paul draws the comparison to our own spiritual death where the light was called to dispel the darkness (in the verses cited, above).
Most of are familiar with the "formless and void" of Gen 1:2, but of interest is that the same Hebrew words occur in Jer 4:23, and the context there in that passage is the spiritual desolation of the Promised Land. In other words, "formless and void" suggests darkness (or desolation), which was the state of the condition of the earth after Gen 1:1.
So we can see how and why Paul compared our new birth, when light was called out of darkness. Therefore, like our new birth at salvation, which involves water and spirit (John 3:5), we see the Holy Spirit renovating the earth through water in Gen 1:2. Thus in Gen 1:2, the earth is "born again."
Of interest is the following verse in Isaiah -
In other words, when God created the earth in Gen 1:1, the earth was not created a waste place, which was the condition described of Gen 1:2. Again, it was the Holy Spirit who had used water to make the earth "born again."
So what happened between Gen 1:1 and Gen 1:2?
If we assume that a menagerie of creatures (prehistoric animals) had preexisted man on the earth, then those creatures lived in that "gap" between Gen 1:1 and Gen 1:2. That is, these creatures suffered both diseases and death, which leads us to ask what sin could have entered the creation (before Adam) to have precipitated that curse on the earth? In other words, before Adam ever existed, what (or who) caused the "formless and void," since Isaiah testifies (in the verse, above) that God did NOT create the world as such? The only plausible explanation is the fall of the great Cherub, now called Satan....
Finally, the third New Testament passage is 2 Pet 3:5-7 -
Peter's point here is that the Holy Spirit uses water when the intent is to restore what was broken by sin; and of course fire is what the Holy Spirit uses when there is no intent to restore what is broken by sin. Please see 1 Pet 3:19-22, which compares the water of the flood with the "water" of eternal life (provided by the Holy Spirit).
Thus when John the Baptist claims that the righteous will be baptized with water, in the same breath he tells the Pharisees that they will be baptized by fire (Matt 3:8-12). In other words, one is to be saved, and the other is to be destroyed. The idea here is that whether it is the earth or our fallen spiritual state, the Holy Spirit uses "water" to restore life. (Light then appears.) However, whether it is the earth or our fallen spiritual state, the Holy Spirit also uses "fire" for judgment and destruction.
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In regards to "tryingtogetprogramming"'s answer above, to expand on theory #4, Old Earth Creation theory suggests Job 38:9 is indicative of the dense cloud of gasses and vapor surrounding the Earth. Some scientists today theorize early Earth may indeed have had an atmosphere similar to Venus or Jupiter's in composition and density, probably caused by meteor strikes and massive volcanic activity. This theory helps to explain how the sun could have been formed and provided light while not visible from the surface of the Earth. Early plants (algae and such) were able to grow in these conditions. As the atmosphere thinned and the sun's light was able to penetrate better, other, more complex plant life could have emerged. Once the atmosphere reached the point where the sun and moon could be seen, it was the 4th Era (Day).
There are two words used in Genesis 1 that, depending on your translation of choice, will often both be translated as "created" or "made." In vv 1, 21, and 27, the verb in play is bara, which is generally understood as meaning roughly "to create something out of nothing." The other verb, asah can be found in vv 16, 25, and 26 and means "to make or appoint from something already in existence." Interestingly, from v14 through v26, the phrase hayah, or "let it be" (or some equivalent) is used in conjunction with asah or bara. Some theologians and OEC advocates then suggest "creation" of the sun and moon on the 4th day may better be understood as "appointed" or "assigned" from something already existing.
Therefore, if we assume the OEC model, Day 1 encompasses approximately 8.5-9 billion years, or the time from the creation of the universe to the creation of the Earth. The sun would have been made during that time frame and the moon shortly after (cosmologically speaking) the earth. Day 2 would involve a thinning of the cloud layer (appointment of the sky between the waters below and the domain of the clouds) that allowed the simple plant life to be created on Day 3 (after the emergence of land) that would finish scrubbing the atmosphere clean allowing direct visual access to the sun, moon and stars (another 1-1.2 billion years for Day 2). Therefore, under the assumption of this model (supported both scientifically and scripturally), the sun was there all along providing light but did not directly affect the Earth until much, much later.