I am aware that the New Testament often quotes from the Hebrew Bible. However, I'm interested to learn whether or not it ever quotes - or alludes to - non-Hebrew / extrabiblical literature?
Jesus Himself quoted non-biblical sources. He quoted (loosely, I presume) a popular, Farmer's Almanac-type saying when He said,
The saying I learned when I was a child was
Jesus also "agreed" with His contemporary critics of Roman rule when He referred to Herod as a fox (Lk 13:32), since Herod was considered by many to be as subtle as a fox, and noted for his craft, and treachery, and baseness.
Jesus quoted a proverb (from a source that is unknown) in the following verse:
"Doctor, heal yourself" was a proverb in use with the Jews and which is sometimes expressed thus, (Kvpn yoa lyz), "go heal thyself," and sometimes in this form, (Ktrgx yoa ayoa), "physician, heal thy lameness."
Jesus then followed up this proverb with another proverb in verse 24:
As an aside, this proverb and the two subsequent illustrations Jesus gave his audience in the synagogue in Nazareth (His hometown) really riled them up, to the point where they were about to throw Jesus off a cliff to get rid of Him.
Paul quoted secular poets in his Sermon on Mars Hill,
Regarding Paul's quotation of the Greek poets, here is what Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible has to say in this regard (with minor punctuation changes):
I suggest it is possible that during his quiet retreat at Tarsus (see Acts 9:30), Paul gave himself to the study of Greek literature, which given his calling as an apostle to the Gentiles may have been conscripted to be used as fodder for future sermons.
Hence, Paul quoted Aratus and other Greek poets and playwrights, as he did in 1 Corinthians 15:33, where we read,
This quotation came from the Athenian writer Menander in his play Thais. Menander lived from 343-291 B.C. and was famous for his comedies. Interestingly, Paul's hometown, the port city of Tarsus in Cilicia was widely known for its vice. Avoiding bad company, then, a notion which may have originated in Stoic philosophy, was to Paul a wise piece of counsel. He may have in fact admired the positive elements of Stoic morality, with its emphasis on self-control and actions based on reason and rationality rather than emotion and a "feels good" ethic. See also Titus 1:10-13, which says,
Also from Paul in the book of Acts comes the following:
The phrase “kick against the pricks” “comes from Aeschylus (525–456 B.C.), Agamemnon, line 1624--or lines 2341 & 2342 at (see Stewart Custer, Witness to Christ, BJU Press, p.164). We do not readily think of the risen Christ quoting a Greek playwright (in Hebrew, no less!), but since Paul's educational background likely included the study of the "Greek classics," Jesus used Paul's familiarity with the work of Aeschylus to reveal to Paul the futility of resisting His grace.
"The pricks" were the jabs the farmer gave the ox that was plowing a field whenever the animal would "rebel" by refusing to do its job. The farmer would take a goad, a sharpened implement of some sort, and jab/prick the ox to get its attention! The animal would soon get the point (pun intended) and not take as many rest breaks thereafter. Paul, like a stubborn ox, was only hurting himself with his stubborn resistance to "the Way" (for "the Way," see Acts 9:2; 19:9,23; 24:14,22). Just as an ox might kick at the goads to no avail, Saul, too, by kicking back at God by hurting His saints, the followers of Christ, was hurting only himself!
Wikis, above, has already mentioned Paul's quoting of Epimenides and Menander in Titus 1:12 and 1 Corinthians 15:33.
So-called "higher critics" like to insist that when Jude (vss.14,15) quoted Enoch (see Ge 5:18-24 and 1 Ch 1:1,2), he was quoting a non-biblical book: either "The Book of Enoch" or "The Apocalypse of Enoch." This insistence is not necessarily warranted. Jude was free, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, to quote (or quote from) Enoch's prophecy as it had been handed down over the centuries as part of Jewish oral history, and this oral tradition may have preceded "The Book of Enoch" by hundreds of years (look here for the words in question).
"All truth is God's truth, wherever it may be found." While there are not many quotations of non-biblical sources in the Judeo-Christian Scriptures, the quotations we do find in both testaments contain and/or underscore a truth or even a truism that bears the stamp of divine approval.
As many biblical scholars have observed--and this is particularly apropos a biblical hermeneutics site, the God-breathed nature of the Word of God in no way conflicts with the "human" or "secular" elements contained in it. God did not ignore or set aside the obviously human factors at work in the process of inspiration, such as the authors'
In conclusion, there are many skeins in the fabric of Scripture. Some of them--a few of which I've listed above--are related to the individual authors. The more-important threads concern the central theme of the Scriptures (viz., the revelation of the personhood of God and His plan of salvation for the human race) and its many other themes. The more we see and understand both kinds of threads, the sounder and more coherent our hermeneutic will be, provided we rely on the same Holy Spirit who inspired all of Scripture (2 Ti 3:16,17).
"Sanctify them in the truth; Your word is truth" (Jn 17:17).
Acts of the Apostles has an unattributed quote from the ancient play, the Bacchae by Euripides (d. 406 BCE): "It hurts you to kick against the goad[or 'pricks']" (Acts 26:14). That this short passage is not a coincidence can be established because the situation and context are the same, and Acts even has Jesus using the same plural form of the noun (kentra) that Euripides needs for the metre of his line.
The story of Paul's escape from prison has reasonably close parallels to words in the play - Acts 16:26: "... and immediately all the doors were opened and everyone's fetters were unfastened;” Bacchae:"The chains on their legs snapped apart by themselves. Untouched by any human hand, the doors swung wide, opening of their own accord."
Not a writer but a (however windy) speaker and (unsuccessful to say the least) comforter:
Eliphas of Teman (against Job, same book 16:3).
Even though part of scripture, still it is pagan, even uninspired, but written it is. (The saying there, not the writing down.):
'He catches the wise in their own craftiness' (Job 5:13).
Paul still esteems him, rather the word, worth quoting 'as it is written' in 1Cor 3: 19:
'He catches the wise in their own craftiness'.
Yes. Titus 1:12:
The footnote in the NIV says, "From the Cretan philosopher Epimenides".
Here the NIV footnote says, "From the Greek poet Menander"