Relating to this question: Is the Jewish Tanakh same as the 'Old Testament' which Christians use?
Do they contain the same books and is the textual content same? If not where do they differ?
There can be different answers to this question because some Christian denominations base their canon off of the Septuagint while several Asian (Middle East and India) Christian denominations base theirs off of the Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh (Aramaic Peshitta Old Testament) which was used from 1st century AD.
Like the Septuagint, the Peshitta Tanakh has books that are not part of the Hebrew Tanakh (also known as the Hebrew Masoretic Text). Since everyone is familiar with the Septuagint, I will primarily focus on the Peshitta Tanakh (used by Eastern Christians) and the differences between it and the Hebrew Tanakh.
The Peshitta Tanakh contains the following books of the Old Testament in the order given: Pentateuch, Job, Joshua, Judges, I Samuel, II Samuel, Psalms, I Kings, II Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Sirach, Isaiah, Jeremiah (with Lamentations, I Epistle of Baruch, II Epistle of Baruch, and Epistle of Jeremiah), Ezekiel, 12 minor prophets (Jonah, Nahum, etc.), Daniel (with Bel and Dragon), Ruth, Susanna, Esther, Judith, Ezra-Nehemiah, Wisdom (of Solomon), I Maccabees, II Maccabees, III Maccabees, IV Maccabees, Esdras, Tobit, and Josephus' Jewish Wars' Book Six.
The most famous Peshitta Tanakhs are the Codex Ambrosianus Peshitta Tanakh and the Buchanan Bible which was brought from Kerala, South India in the 19th century.
Josephus' Jewish Wars Book Six is listed as the last book of the Peshitta Tanakh because it mentions the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD and the vision of chariots and soldiers in sky right before the destruction of Jerusalem.
Eastern Christians (including myself) use the Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh, because Aramaic is used in Eastern Christianity (Middle East and India). Aside from those mentioned above, the Peshitta Tanakh has other differences from the Hebrew Tanakh especially in verses. Here are some of the information.
Following are some of the issues found in the Hebrew Masoretic Text cleared by the Peshitta Tanakh.
You can read this verse in the Hebrew Masoretic Text. Exodus 6:20 in the Hebrew Masoretic Text agrees with the KJV, NIV, and 1917 JPS Tanakh English translations. But is this the correct rendering? Well, let's look at the Peshitta Tanakh (Aramaic Old Testament) and compare it with the Septuagint.
Here is a link to check this information.
Lamsa wrote "uncle's daughter" instead of writing the daughter of his father's brother. Let's also look at John Wycliffe’s translation:
Compareing the Peshitta Tanakh and Wycliffe’s translation, the difference with the Septuagint are that it says the years of the life of Ambram were a hundred and thirty-two years. The Peshitta Tanakh and Wycliffe’s translation agree with the Hebrew Masoretic Text about Ambram's age.
Here is this verse in the Hebrew Masoretic Text. Genesis 2:2 in the Hebrew Masoretic Text agrees with the 1917 JPS Tanakh English Translation.
Let’s look at Septuagint:
Here is a site to check this verse.
In the Hebrew Masoretic Text it says "seventh day" (in Genesis 2:2). This is in contradiction with Exodus 20:11 (in the Hebrew Masoretic Text) where it says "six days." But Peshitta Tanakh has no such contradiction.
Observe the differences below:
2 Kings 8:26 & 2 Chronicles 22:2
In 2 Kings 8:26 from the Hebrew Masoretic Text it says that Ahaziah was 22 years old. But in 2 Chronicles 22:2, it says Ahaziah was 42 years old. Does the Peshitta Tanakh have this contradiction?
The Peshitta Tanakh clears the contradiction found in the Hebrew Masoretic Text.
Did Joram marry the daughter of Ahab or the sister of Ahab?
Through this we know that Athaliah was the wife of Joram and their son was Ahaziah. But in 2 Kings 8:26 & 2 Chronicles 22:2, it says Athaliah was the daughter of Omri and Athaliah was the mother of Ahaziah. But in 2 Kings 8:16-18, we read Athaliah was the daughter of Ahab. In 1 Kings 16:29-30, we know that Ahab was the son of Omri.
What does Peshitta Tanakh say about this contradiction?
Unlike 2 Kings 8:16-18 from the Hebrew Masoretic Text, the Peshitta Tanakh points out that Joram married a sister of Ahab. Through this, the contradictions in the Hebrew Masoretic Text are cleared by the Peshitta Tanakh. Ahab was the son of Omri and Athaliah was the daughter of Omri.
Was Jehoiachin 8 years old (2 Chronicles 36:9) or 18 years old (2Kings 24:8) when he began to reign?
It says that Jehoiachin was eighteen years old in 2 Kings 24:8 and that he was eight years old in 2 Chronicles 36:9. What does the Peshitta Tanakh say about this contradiction?
Both 2 Chronicles 36:9 and 2 Kings 24:8 say that Jehoiachin was eighteen years old. This contradiction in the Hebrew Masoretic Text is cleared by the Peshitta Tanakh.
1 Samuel 13:5
There are 30,000 chariots, but there are only 6000 horsemen? There is something strange here. Let's look at the Peshitta Tanakh.
In the Peshitta Tanakh, it says there were 3000 chariots instead of 30,000 chariots as in the Hebrew Masoretic Text. This makes much more sense.
In the Peshitta Tanakh, it says Beth-el. But the Hebrew Masoretic Text has Beth-aven.
There are several other differences between the Aramaic Peshitta Tanakh and the Hebrew Tanakh.
In Eastern Tradition, it is believed that books like Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Zachariah, Haggai, Malachi, Judith, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees are originally written in Aramaic since they were written after the Babylonian exile and the Peshitta Tanakh preserves the original of these books. But it must be noted that this is not confirmed.
The Lamsa translation of the Peshitta Tanakh is the only current available English Translation of the Peshitta Tanakh. His translation is alright. It’s not great.
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In general the Tanakh is the same as the Christian Old Testament. The differences are:
Jews and Christians use essentially the same set of Hebrew Scriptures. Like any text from before the invention of the printing press, there are variations between copies. But as a practical matter, the variations are minor and rarely impact interpretation.
Here is a chart which gives a comparison of the books and order:
The other important thing to remember is that the Jewish Tanach exists primarily in Hebrew and is augmented by commentary from within the Jewish tradition. Any translation, especially one whose translation was influenced by other theologies will deviate in terms of content.