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Does Jesus always use the mustard seed to signify the property of “smallness”?

The phrase "mustard seed" is found in the New Testament several times. I am not sure, maybe it is also found in the Old Testament. I wonder what this phrase in fact meant in those languages that the Bible was written in? I heard that the meaning is "the smallest possible measure of something", that is, there could be no smaller degree, no smaller unit than the one described by this phrase. Is that definition correct? I also heard that it means "small", but not necessarily "smallest". Is that correct? Any other possible meanings?


Here are some occurrences of "mustard seed" in the New Testament:

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field (Matthew 13:31)

And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you (Matthew 17:20)

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Could you cite one or two of these occurrences? Any answer here would have to start from the original language, and that's easier to find with a verse. (And if there are uses in both Tanakh the the Christian books, the answers could end up being different in Hebrew and Greek.) –  Gone Quiet Dec 30 '12 at 17:31
@MonicaCellio - Just did it. –  brilliant Dec 30 '12 at 17:53
Closely related: Does Jesus always use the mustard seed to signify the property of “smallness”? Do either of the answers there help answer your question? –  Jon Ericson Jan 2 '13 at 18:41
@JonEricson - Having read that page, I am now thinking that my present question must be closed. –  brilliant Jan 3 '13 at 6:03
Ok. I went ahead and closed it as a duplicate. Does anyone think we should merge the questions as well? (That would be my instinct, but this might be a useful signpost and another way for Google to index the question.) –  Jon Ericson Jan 3 '13 at 17:27
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marked as duplicate by Jon Ericson Jan 3 '13 at 17:25

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The concept of smallness and from appearance wise ‘nothing’, causing largeness of surprising results, is applied by the used of Sinapis Nigra (Black Mustard) in two ways in the gospels. First, as in Mathew 17:20 the smallness is faith and the surprising results are miracles. The idea is that faith can be small as its object is God not itself. Second, as in Luke13:18, the kingdom of God is compared to the mustard seed (σίναπι) because as such small beginnings of the mustard seed actually held the end result within it. Within a seed there is a kind of pledge that its surprisingly large outcome will certainly come to pass. This is true about the humble beginnings of Christ’s ministry and Christianity – it was predetermined to grow with certainty based on its seed.

In the OT mustard is not mentioned. Yet later Jewish lit. shows that it was well-known in Palestine (Hbr. חַרְדָּל, Aram. חַרְדְּלָא, Arab. chardal), → n. 10. Acc. to the Mishnah (in contrast to → line 10) it was not cultivated in gardens but in fields, Kil., 3, 2; cf. 2, 9. It was grown both for the grains (T. Maas., III, 7 [84]) and also the leaves, loc. cit.; T. Kil., II, 8 [75]). There is no ref. to medical use. The smallness of the seed was proverbial. In some rules of cleanness the slightest quantity defiles, “even as little as a grain of mustard-seed,” Nid., 5, 2; cf. b. Ber., 31a.…to-day the mustard does in fact grow to a height of 2 1/2–3 metres in the vicinity of Lake Gennesaret. (Vol. 7: Theological dictionary of the New Testament. 1964- (G. Kittel, G. W. Bromiley & G. Friedrich, Ed.)

Alfred Edersheim further vindicates that the mustard seed was not a tree but a garden herb that was quite large compared to the small size of its seed. Also that it was proverbial in Jewish culture:

The very idea of Parables implies, not strict scientific accuracy, but popular pictorialness. It is characteristic of them to present vivid sketches that appeal to the popular mind, and exhibit such analogies of higher truths as can be readily perceived by all. Those addressed were not to weigh every detail, either logically or scientifically, but at once to recognise the aptness of the illustration as presented to the popular mind. Thus, as regards the first of these two Parables, the seed of the mustard-plant passed in popular parlance as the smallest of seeds. In fact, the expression, ‘small as a mustard-seed,’ had become proverbial, and was used, not only by our Lord, but frequently by the Rabbis, to indicate the smallest amount, such as the least drop of blood, the least defilement, or the smallest remnant of sun-glow in the sky. ‘But when it is grown, it is greater than the garden-herbs.’ Indeed, it looks no longer like a large garden-herb or shrub, but ‘becomes,’ or rather, appears like, ‘a tree’—as St. Luke puts it, ‘a great tree,’ of course, not in comparison with other trees, but with garden-shrubs. Such growth of the mustard seed was also a fact well known at the time, and, indeed, still observed in the East. (The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah)

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