Translators publishing for the Christian market translate the title in Isaiah 9:6:
For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
—Isaiah 9:6 (ESV)
But the Jewish Publishing Society's 1917 edition of the Tanakh renders the same verse (which is numbered slightly differently) as:
For a child is born unto us, a son is given unto us; and the government is upon his shoulder; and his name is called Pele-joez-el-gibbor-Abi-ad-sar-shalom;—Isaiah 9:5 (JPS)
Wikipedia implies that the the decision to translate or transliterate is largely motivated by doctrinal issues that exist outside of the text. What principles should be used by translators to judge whether to render a name or title into words that carry the same meaning in the target language (as some do with the Adversary) or the simply reproduce the sounds of the words from the source language (as is done with Israel)?
Bonus question: I assume the phrase is ambiguous in Hebrew; either of the common translations can be made to work. Is there a way to translate this phrase in such a way as to avoid privileging one doctrinally-based interpretation over another?
We've been reading one of my favorite Christmas books as a family and this question is touched upon there:
"She said, 'His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace.'" ...
"My God!" Imogene said, "He'd never get out of the first grade if he had to write all that!"
—The Best Christmas Pageant Ever by Barbara Robinson