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I am puzzled by translations of the 23rd Psalm. I wish to bring those my puzzlement to your attention. Perhaps, someone could comment on it.

  1. ינחני במעגלי צדק

    The accepted translations are saying

    He leads me in paths of righteousness.

    ?

    In Hebrew, it actually says, at least what I believe to say,

    He-marshalls(guide by contraints)-me within realm/circle of righteousness.

    There is no word "path" in the sentence at all. Does anyone see the word "path" (דרך, רחוב)?

    The accepted translations are giving quite a different picture as to where to and how we are guided into righteousness than in the Hebrew.

  2. תערך לפני שלחן - You arrange before me a table

    נגד צררי - against/affronting my enemies.

    However, the accepted translations are saying,

    You prepare a table before me in the "presence" of my enemies.

    ערך would be to arrange and place per item deliberately following a plan or principle.

    That is, in Hebrew, I find that the verse is telling me that the LORD deliberately puts me in a place of honour in His concierge of a well-laid table as a provocative confrontation towards my enemies.

  3. אך טוב וחסד - But goodness and mercy

    ירדפוני - will pursue me

    It's not like goodness and mercy will "follow" me lackadaisically. But the Hebrew says that they will relentless pursue me (perhaps even hunt me down).

    Which means not only am I assured goodness and mercy, they hunt me down to compel me that I too exhibit goodness and mercy.

  4. Finally the big kahuna of the question. The previous statements are just to convince you that the standard translations for Psalm 23 cannot be trusted. This is the actual question.

    ושבתי בבית יי - And I shall dwell in the house of the LORD

    לארך ימים - for lengthening/lengthenedness of days.

    It does not say "forever" or "eternity" (לעלם ועד).

    Doesn't the verse actually mean

    And I shall spend more time in the house of the LORD

    So that, if you are Christian, it says you go to church more often, if you are Buddhist, you meditate more, etc. Don't you think so? I am asking this question after realising that Stone's does not translate it as "forever" but as "long long days".

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I think I made a mistake in נחן. I think it means more like bestow rather than to marshal. i.e., "He grants me to be within the karma/encirclement/track of righteousness". –  Blessed Geek Nov 1 '12 at 15:45
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2 Answers

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"Path" and "realm" result in very different images. "Path" brings to mind the image of danger on every side except unless you stay right there. "Realm" makes the image more like a fenced-in pasture; you can go anywhere within the pasture and be safe. This is a very common metaphor in the rabbinic writings. Torah is a fence that keeps us safe from outer dangers.

However, looking at the Hebrew word in Brown, Driver, Briggs Lexicon, ma'gal, I see it means "entrenchment, track, (fig.) course of action, way of life." It appears in such places as Proverbs 4:11 where "upright paths" (using ma'gal) appears in parallel to "way of wisdom" (using derek) (ma'gal is also parallel to derek in Proverbs 4:26). The imagery in Psalm 17:5 is similar, "My steps have held fast to Thy paths. My feet have not slipped."

I conclude that "path" is acceptable for ma'gal.

You make a very good point with #2.

I definitely agree on point 3. No question the Hebrew means much more than a mere following. It is ironic in that this is the only place in the Hebrew Bible where "pursue" has "goodness and mercy" as the subject. Usually, it is a person's enemies who pursue him this way. However, God (goodness and mercy being used of Him) will pursue His beloved every bit as hard as armies pursue their enemies.

Regarding point 4, you have a very strong argument against "forever," but I disagree with reading it as "more time." Your case is especially strong when you look at the rest of the verse. The NET Bible translates it this way (very close to your translation).

23:6 Surely your goodness and faithfulness will pursue me all my days,

and I will live in the Lord’s house for the rest of my life.

(Bold added to show parallel.)

They take "for lengthening of days" as "rest of my life" because that translation shows how the two Hebrew phrases in bold stand in parallel. Other places where the phrase לארך ימים is used (see Deuteronomy 30:20; Job 12:12; Psalm 91:16; Proverbs 3:2, 16; Lamentations 5:20) refer to a human life. An exception is Psalm 21:4* where the phrase is followed by the intensifier "forever and ever."

*I linked to the KJV because it shows the "forever and ever" phrase where the NET uses "an enduring dynasty" to show how the king will achieve eternal life.

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On positive pursuit, see also צֶדֶק צֶדֶק, תִּרְדֹּף (Deut 16:20). –  Gone Quiet Nov 1 '12 at 0:29
    
I'm kind of obstinately clinging on to the idea that מעגל denotes a constraint whether a path, track, trench, encampment, plan, strategy. Like the sanskrit word karma (not the religious meaning) - an available course or existence guided/constrained by stuffs around us. In fact, I am so tempted to translate it as "He marshals me in karma of righteousness". –  Blessed Geek Nov 1 '12 at 5:37
    
The modern meaning - morfix.co.il/en/%D7%9E%D7%A2%D7%92%D7%9C –  Blessed Geek Nov 1 '12 at 5:53
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All translation is commentary. It's unavoidable, since every language has its own nuances, idioms, etc. That's why it's important to (a) read with notes/commentaries that can explain these factors and (b) consult multiple translations. –  Gone Quiet Nov 1 '12 at 14:33
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"All translation is commentary" reminds me of Hillel the Elder in Shabbat 31a, “Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you. This is the whole of Torah; the rest is commentary. Go now and study the commentary.” –  Frank Luke Nov 1 '12 at 14:53
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Blessed Geek, your question overlooks the fact that the phrase "all the days of my life" precedes the phrase "and I will dwell in the House of the Lord..." It's after the rest of his life is over that he will dwell in the House of the Lord. Does it really matter whether the ancient Hebrew translates as "for lengthening days," "for long long days," "for days and days," "forever," or even "for the rest of my days"? After all, we're talking about a poem from the same book that begins by telling us that God created the earth and everything in it in a mere 6 days!

The word "forever" is so powerful here. It's no wonder the vast majority of scholarly translators for hundreds of years have selected it as the perfect choice for an English translation. It serves as the quintessential exclamation point. It provides the ultimate comfort for the listener and the reader. "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the House of the Lord forever."

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Perhaps, "I will lengthen the days I spend in church"? "... in the temple?" –  Blessed Geek Apr 20 at 7:33
    
@BlessedGeek, I know nothing of Hebrew, much less ancient Hebrew, but you yourself have accepted the translation of ושבתי בבית יי to be "and I shall dwell in the house of the LORD." Does "dwell" really equate with "spending time somewhere"? A quick Google of the definition of "dwell" returns: –  Louis Shaffner Apr 20 at 13:12
    
@Blessed Geek, after editing the above comment which was truncated after I tried to indicate a space by hitting "return", I was informed that comments can only be edited for 5 minutes and the system wouldn't accept my final draft, so please disregard the above comment and read the next one instead. –  Louis Shaffner Apr 20 at 14:14
    
@BlessedGeek, you yourself accept the translation of "ושבתי בבית יי" to be "and I shall dwell in the house of the LORD." Doesn't "to dwell" usually mean "to reside," "to lodge," "to be domiciled," etc.? Shouldn't we first attempt to apply this primary definition of "to dwell" before applying the (likely more modern) idiomatic meaning "to spend a lot of time somewhere"? Even the rabbis of David's time didn't dwell; i.e., reside, sleep, etc., in the Temple. Respectful of your opinion of course, I believe David is talking about where he will dwell after "all the days of his life" are over. –  Louis Shaffner Apr 20 at 14:15
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