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Revelation 4:8 refers to God as κύριος, ὁ θεός, ὁ παντοκράτωρ, generally rendered as 'Lord God Almighty.' I'm interested in the last word: ὁ παντοκράτωρ. Would this have connoted omnipotence as the English rendering "Almighty" does?

If it's a compound word, I'm reasonably certain the first half of the word, παντο, means "all." But what does κράτωρ mean? Is παντοκράτωρ a word used outside of the New Testament at all? I'm curious too, for instance, how the LXX translates El-Shaddai, since that is typically rendered in modern English translations as "The Almighty" as well. Are these related?

Can anyone shed light on the meaning of this word in Revelation?

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Interesting note on this: there was a sport in the ancient Greek Olympics called pankration, which is basically the same word. This sport was a no-holds-barred fight often resulting in the death of one of the participants. Kind of like Mixed Martial Arts, only much more brutal. Nice to have that guy on your side, don't you think? –  Fraser Orr Nov 12 '12 at 15:46
    
You had asked about references in the LXX. katabiblon.com is a helpful resource that shows usage in LXX as well as GNT. –  Bob Blocher Aug 13 at 0:54

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As another member mentioned, the Greek word κράτος (kratos) means "power" or "might" (LSJ, p. 992). However, that is not one of the words in the word παντοκράτωρ (pantokratōr). Rather, παντοκράτωρ consists of two compounds:

  1. παντο-
  2. -κράτωρ

As @fdb noted, the first compound παντο consists of the athematic stem παντ- plus the thematic vowel -o- (suffixed to the first compound), meaning "all." The second compound is the noun κράτωρ (kratōr), meaning "master, potentate" (ruler) (LSJ, p. 992). Using the Perseus search function, one can find a list of other compound words containing the word κράτωρ in it. For example,

Thus, παντοκράτωρ would simply mean "ruler of all." In other words, it refers to one who has dominion over everything (i.e., the entire universe). "Almighty" could be a suitable English equivalent, but a better one would probably be "sovereign." Thus, ὁ παντοκράτωρ is indeed "the Almighty" or "the Sovereign."


References

Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; Jones, Henry Stuart; McKenzie, Roderick. A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

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παντο is not "elided", nor is it "shorthand for παντός"; that is not how Greek forms a compound. It is the athematic stem παντ- plus thematic vowel -o- as first member of a compound. –  fdb Feb 24 at 23:05
    
Yes, "all-ruler" or "ruler of all" or "almighty" or "omnipotent" are all correct. By the way, it was a title given also to the god Hermes. –  fdb Feb 24 at 23:49
    
There are more recent books in copyright, but this might be useful: archive.org/stream/BuckComparativeGrammer/CGL#page/n369/mode/… –  fdb Feb 25 at 0:36

Kratos does mean power, but krator means ruler. I'd say pantokrator does not mean quite the same as almighty. In fact, there could be a considerable difference since almighty or omnipotent seems to imply the ability to do anything, but "ruler of all" only seems to refer to all things that actually exist.

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I'm very grateful for your participation here. This site is a little different from other sites.. Please give sources for these claims. Be sure to visit the tour to learn more about this site. Welcome to Biblical Hermeneutics Stack Exchange! –  Paul Vargas Feb 24 at 20:17

The Greek (root) word kratos means "power". So yes, "all powerful" or "almighty" would be a reasonable translation.

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