Proverbs chapter 8 uses a personification of Wisdom. Some people take this personification as a description of God, or of the Messiah. Is there any textual justification for this?
This personification of Wisdom can't refer to either God or to the messiah.
Verse 8:22 says:
God made Wisdom, so Wisdom can't be God. (God didn't make God; God just always was.)
Under Christianity, the messiah is part of God and so this can't mean the messiah either. Under Judaism, the messiah will be an ordinary man -- definitely not God, and also far from the first thing God created.
So if Wisdom isn't God or the messiah, what is she? Consider the following verses:
Wisdom is Torah, the law. (The word "torah" literally means "teaching" or "instruction".)
Please note: This answer was written for a neutral, academic audience and is not intended to be interpreted in the context of a religious belief or doctrine.
The key to understanding Wisdom's identity lies in both the genre of the book itself and the textual clues within the book.
The Book of Proverbs is classified as wisdom literature. This genre existed prior to the generation of the proverbs or the compiling of the book itself. The society into which these proverbs were written was already familiar with the concepts of "wisdom" and "proverbs," and they sought for wisdom and valued it dearly. No one wanted to be a fool. Everyone wanted to be wise and successful.
The Book of Proverbs presents the wisdom of God as the true wisdom. Essentially, its function is to point the wisdom-seeker back to God. Thus, the function of the Book of Proverbs in the canon of Scripture is (...no surprise here...) redemptive in nature. (And so we discover that the book is not so out of place in the canon as scholars have traditionally thought.)
Throughout the book the term "wisdom" is used interchangeably with "righteousness", and likewise, the term "foolishness" is used interchangeably with "wickedness." For example, Proverbs 10:18-21:
(Notice that hatred, lying, and slander in the first verse would normally be characteristic of the "wicked," but here the wise man names the "fool." In the second verse, the man of transgression is contrasted not with the "righteous," but with the "wise." In the third verse we might expect the tongue of the "wise" to be as choice silver, but he instead names the "righteous." In the fourth verse, righteousness is explicitly contrasted -- not with "wickedness," but with "foolishness.")
This is why the wise woman of Proverbs 31 is characterized by the fear of the Lord, and why the wisdom of Proverbs so often points us in the exact same direction of the rest of Scripture: to humility, ministry, love, Godly character, compassion, etc.
It isn't hard to see during a quick read through the book of Proverbs that true "wisdom" is to walk in God's ways.
Who would qualify as the "personification of God's ways"? Well, God, I suppose. It isn't hard to make the connection to Jesus, the perfect God-Man. The following verse comes to mind:
The question in my mind is whether Wisdom is Jesus or the Spirit, but I suppose I'm splitting hairs at this point.