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The first verse of Psalm 138 is clearly stating David as author of the Psalm. In verse 2 it says:

I will bow down toward your holy temple
and will praise your name
for your unfailing love and your faithfulness,
for you have so exalted your solemn decree
that it surpasses your fame. 

But the temple was not built in the time of David. What is going on here? Is the temple refering to the tabernacle? Or is the Psalm written by some other David? Or someone that is using the kings name?

It's worth noting that there are also others Psalms attributed to David which mentions a temple, such as; Ps 5:8, Ps 24:3.

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Psalm is in future tense. Could be David's prayer to build the temple. The word for temple here is "heichal" or hall, usually a permanent structure, not the Tabernacle. – Eli Rosencruft Aug 19 '12 at 19:52
Oh! That was really interesting :) – Niclas Nilsson Aug 19 '12 at 20:10
up vote 7 down vote accepted

hekal(הֵיכָל) means 'palace' or 'temple'. It is used to refer to the Solomon's Temple but also (for example) the house at Shiloh in David's time, here in 1 Samuel 1:9

After they had eaten and drunk in Shiloh, Hannah rose. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat beside the doorpost of the temple of the Lord. ESV

Among other usages, it can also refer to the heavenly temple, which is probably what David means by his use of the word in 2 Samuel 22:7

In my distress I called upon the Lord; to my God I called. From his temple he heard my voice, and my cry came to his ears. ESV

In general, context will determine which usage of the word is intended by the author in each case. My reading of Psalm 138 is that David is referring to the heavenly seat of God's majesty rather than a physical structure on Earth.

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