The rabbis of the talmud, recording received oral tradition, appear to understand God to have arranged the stars into their constellations. The following passage from Tractate B'rachot 58b (in the Babylonian talmud) comments on the passages brought in this question (among others):
Samuel contrasted two texts. It is written, Who maketh the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades (Job 9:9). And it is written elsewhere, That maketh Pleiades and Orion (Amos 5:8). How do we reconcile these? Were it not for the heat of Orion the world could not endure the cold of Pleiades; and were it not for the cold of Pleiades the world could not endure the heat of Orion. There is a tradition that were it not that the tail of the Scorpion has been placed in the Stream of Fire (Dan 7:10 in passing), no one who has ever been stung by a scorpion could live. This is what is referred to in the words of the All-Merciful to Job: Canst thou bind the chains of Pleiades or loose the bands of Orion? (Job 38:31) (Soncino translation, emphasis mine)
As noted in comments on the question, the words "Orion" and "Pleiades" do not appear as such in the Hebrew text; they are translations of כְּסִיל and כִּימָה respectively. Rashi seems not to be bothered by any of this, but I don't know why that is.
Another talmudic passage supporting divine creation of the constellations is on B'rachot 32b:
Resh Lakish said: The community of Israel said before the Holy One, blessed be He: Sovereign of the Universe, when a man takes a second wife after his first, he still remembers the deeds of the first. Thou hast both forsaken me and forgotten me! The Holy One, blessed be He, answered her: My daughter, twelve constellations have I created in the firmament, and for each constellation I have created thirty hosts, and for each host I have created thirty legions, and for each legion I have created thirty cohorts, and for each cohort I have created thirty maniples, and for each maniple I have created thirty camps, and to each camp I have attached three hundred and sixty-five thousands of myriads of stars, corresponding to the days of the solar year, and all of them I have created only for thy sake, and thou sayest, Thou hast forgotten me and forsaken me! Can a woman forsake her sucking child [‘ullah]?
Also, Rosh Hashana 11b, talking about the flood:
and because they [mankind] perverted their ways, the Holy One, blessed be He, changed for them the work of creation and made the constellation of Pleiades rise at daybreak and took two stars from the Pleiades and brought a flood on the world.
So according to rabbinic tradition as recorded in the talmud, God not only created the constellations but later modified at least one of them.