Closely Related: Was Adam present when the serpent was talking with Eve?
1. Question Restatement:
What does “because of the angels” refer to in 1 Cor 11:10?
2. Answer - Analogies of Why Accountability is Necessary :
There are actually several analogies of contention and betrayal in this passage: A.) Disputes within the Church; B.) Betrayal of the Angels; C.) Adultery from Numbers 5; D.) and Judas' Betrayal.
Paul's analogies seem to argue that even the most well-intentioned advocates must submit to authorities, if even Eve herself - and the Angels - made mistakes.
2.1. Context - The Failure of the Angels:
In Scripture, when the Angels fell - the angels betrayed their role to advocate for mankind, (See Jude, Genesis 6:1-4, Enoch 7).
In the texts, when the angels fell, it was necessary for power/authority to be held over them, for accountability.
2.2. Context - Eve's Failure:
NASB, 1 Timothy 2:14 - And it was not Adam who was deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression.
2.3. Context - Analogy and Reference to the Cup of Betrayal in Numbers 5 :
NASB, Numbers 5:18-19 - 18 The priest shall then have the woman stand before the Lord and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and place the *grain offering**** of memorial in her hands, which is the grain offering of jealousy, and in the hand of the priest is to be the ***water of bitterness* that brings a curse.
Note: The Bread / Cup Analogy, and 1 Corinthian 11's "Communion" context, and Judas' betrayal.
NASB, Numbers 5:19 - The priest shall have her take an oath and shall say to the woman, “If no man has lain with you and if you have not gone astray into uncleanness, being under the authority of your husband, be immune to this water of bitterness that brings a curse;
2.4. Context - Reliance on Authorities to Prevent and Resolve Disputes:
NASB, 1 Corinthias 11:3-4 - 3 But I want you to understand that Christ is the head of every man, and the man is the head of a woman, and God is the head of Christ ...
NASB, 1 Corinthians 11:10 - ... 10 Therefore the woman ought to have a [symbol] of authority on her head - BECAUSE OF THE ANGELS.
Note: "Symbol" is not represented in the Greek text.
2.5. Context - Contention Within the Church:
NASB, 1 Corinthians 11:16 - But if one is inclined to be contentious, we have no other practice, nor have the churches of God.
NASB, 1 Corinthians 11:18 - For, in the first place, when you come together [p]as a church, I hear that [q]divisions exist among you; and in part I believe it.
Note: Jude seems more explicit of contention as betrayal, (going after each other's flesh). See In Jude 7, What is "Strange Flesh"?
2.6. Context - Judas' Betrayal:
NASB, 1 Corinthians 11:23 - For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread;
NASB, 1 Corinthians 11:29 - For he who eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgment to himself if he does not JUDGE the body rightly. 30 For this reason many among you are weak and sick, and a number sleep.
Note: Translators wrongfully use "Discern, (i.e., subjectivity)" and "Judge, (i.e., objectivity)" interchangeably. See NKJV Translation of 1 Corinthians 11:29 "... not discerning the [Lord’s] body" - which wrongfully raises the issue of "transubstantiation".
3. Metaphors of "Covenant Authority":
In this context, "cover", "hair", and "head" are clear metaphors regarding "authority":
Men are not "literally" the heads of women, nor could Christ literally be the "head" of a man ...
Without question, "Authority" in 1 Corinthians 11:10, Interlinear denotes a "governing authority, (ἐξουσία)".
However: Given the context - and at the very least - "Authority" is also referring to "Covenant Authority":
- Specifically: The authority to protect rights attributed as a result of a marriage covenant, (Numbers 5, et al);
- And Generally: the authority to maintain a covenant relationship, to resolve disputes - in marriage, members of the Church, and even between God, Christ, and mankind, (1 Corinthians 11).
Note 1: Personal amplified translation, as requested. Note 2: Have taken a lot of liberty to interpret Man and Woman as husband and wife, following Numbers 5.
1 Corinthians 11:3 - Further, I need you to know, that because Christ is the head, (the authority over), every husband, so also is the husband the head, (the authority over) his wife, and so also is God the head, (the authority over), Christ.
1 Corinthians 11:4 - Every husband who gives thanks, or prophesies, according to some head, some authority, he has over him - exposes and shames himself, and the proper authority over him - Christ.
Note: It seems as though Paul uses "Head over" as metaphorical, and then uses the term literally, when shaming oneself. This interpretation suggests that Paul is intentionally employing equivocation, (parisology): equating shaming oneself with shaming the proper authority over oneself.
1 Corinthians 11:5 - Also, every wife who gives thanks or prophesies, but who freely betrays the authority over herself, her husband - is one and the same as one who exposes and shames themselves.
1 Corinthians 11:7 - Practically and in truth - a husband is not obligated to cover his head - the authority of Christ over him - which is in principle the very reflection and glory of God; and also a wife, has no obligation to cover her head - the authority of her husband over her - which is in principle the very reflection and glory of Christ.
Note: Probably the biggest objection to this interpretation, is in verse 7. In this verse, it seems more plausible that the heavy reliance on parallel and elliptical constructions in the Greek - should be understood consistently - and the "lack of obligation" should be expanded to include both men and women.
1 Corinthians 11:8-9 - ... For it is not man that followed after, or is of woman, but woman who followed after, and is of man; 9. For a husband was not shaped for the sake of a woman's vulnerability, but woman who was shaped for the sake of man's vulnerability.
*Vulnerability - In the garden, God recognized Adam's need, declaring: "it is not good for man to be alone ..."
1 Corinthians 11:10 - Because of this, (woman having being shaped in view of man's vulnerability), it is a necessary obligation for the woman to have an authority over her own head, over herself, just as it is necessary even for the angels to be held accountable, who betrayed mankind, having shamed themselves, betraying the vulnerability of the ones they were sent to protect.