There is no ambiguity about Deborah’s sex. The reason you have not seen a translation render this “Deborah, a woman, a prophetess, etc.” is the awkwardness of such a translation. And there are many other instances of this in the Bible: ish mitzri (to take an example from this morning’s Torah reading), “an Egyptian man” or just “an Egyptian”, not “a man, an Egyptian”. The Masoretic trop therefore explicitly combine the two words into a single phrase.
Note that the next instance of the word for woman in this verse is in the construct form and must be translated “woman of” (or “wife of”) and is attached to the next word. The usual translation is “wife of Lapidoth” and the midrash Eliyahu Rabbah identifies Lapidoth (meaning “torches”) with Barak (meaning “lightning”). However, in ArtScroll’s The Prophets, Rubin Edition, the words esheth lapidoth (אשת לפידות) are instead rendered “a fiery woman”. This seems to follow another midrashic tradition, as explained by Metzudath David ad loc. (translation my own):
Esheth lapidoth, that is to say, a woman of valor, enthusiastic in her service as a flaming torch; this is a colloquialism.
This translation is perhaps informed by the Midrash quoted in the Talmud (Megilla 14a):
אשת לפידות שהיתה עושה פתילות למקדש
She is called esheth lapidoth because she made wicks for the sanctuary.
If the text is read “a fiery woman” (lit., “woman of torches”), this Midrash would be a hyper-literal reading of her description. If the text refers to her husband, one might expect the Midrash to describe his fieriness instead.