Besides gaining reputation with your questions and answers, you receive badges for being especially helpful. Badges appear on your profile page, flair, and your posts.

Question Badges

First bounty you manually awarded on another person's question
14 awarded
First bounty you manually awarded on your own question
16 awarded
Asked a well-received question on 5 separate days, and maintained a positive question record
61 awarded
First bounty you offered on another person's question
16 awarded
Question score of 10 or more
262 awarded
Asked a question with 1,000 views
560 awarded
First bounty you offered on your own question
21 awarded
Asked a question and accepted an answer
289 awarded
Asked first question with score of 1 or more
562 awarded
Asked a question with no votes, no answers, no comments, and low views for a week
14 awarded

Answer Badges

Edited and answered 1 question (both actions within 12 hours, answer score > 0)
30 awarded
Answer score of 10 or more
255 awarded
Answered more than 30 days later as first answer scoring 2 or more
144 awarded
Answered your own question with score of 3 or more
22 awarded
Answered first question with score of 1 or more
590 awarded

Participation Badges

Completed "About Me" section of user profile
1.4k awarded
Visited an election during any phase of an active election and had enough reputation to cast a vote
Left 10 comments
146 awarded
Earned at least 200 reputation (the daily maximum) in a single day
18 awarded
Followed the Area 51 proposal for this site before it entered the commitment phase
34 awarded
One post with score of 2 on meta
82 awarded
Posted 10 messages, with 1 or more starred, in chat
38 awarded

Tag Badges

You must have a total score of 100 in at least 20 non-community wiki answers to achieve this badge.
13 awarded

Moderation Badges

First flagged post
108 awarded
First rollback
25 awarded
First down vote
142 awarded
Completed at least one review task. This badge is awarded once per review type
231 awarded
Deleted own post with score of 3 or higher
9 awarded
First edit
495 awarded
Edited first post that was inactive for 6 months
32 awarded
First retag
44 awarded
Deleted own post with score of -3 or lower
18 awarded
Approved or rejected 100 suggested edits
Used 30 votes in a day
17 awarded
First up vote
783 awarded
First approved tag synonym
6 awarded
First tag wiki edit
15 awarded
Used the maximum 40 votes in a day
12 awarded

Other Badges

Visited every section of the FAQ (retired)
28 awarded
Shared a link to a question that was visited by 25 unique IP addresses
3 awarded
Read the entire tour page
350 awarded