Besides gaining reputation with your questions and answers, you receive badges for being especially helpful. Badges appear on your profile page, flair, and your posts.

Question Badges

First bounty you manually awarded on another person's question
13 awarded
First bounty you manually awarded on your own question
15 awarded
Asked a well-received question on 5 separate days, and maintained a positive question record
61 awarded
First bounty you offered on another person's question
15 awarded
Question score of 10 or more
262 awarded
Asked a question with 1,000 views
585 awarded
First bounty you offered on your own question
20 awarded
Asked a question and accepted an answer
297 awarded
Asked first question with score of 1 or more
576 awarded
Asked a question with zero score, no answers, no comments, and low views for a week
14 awarded

Answer Badges

Edited and answered 1 question (both actions within 12 hours, answer score > 0)
31 awarded
Answer score of 10 or more
234 awarded
Answered more than 30 days later as first answer scoring 2 or more
141 awarded
Answered your own question with score of 3 or more
22 awarded
Answered first question with score of 1 or more
610 awarded

Participation Badges

Completed "About Me" section of user profile
1.5k awarded
Visited an election during any phase of an active election and had enough reputation to cast a vote
Left 10 comments
146 awarded
Earned at least 200 reputation (the daily maximum) in a single day
17 awarded
Followed the Area 51 proposal for this site before it entered the commitment phase
34 awarded
One post with score of 2 on meta
81 awarded
Posted 10 messages, with 1 or more starred, in chat
38 awarded

Tag Badges

You must have a total score of 100 in at least 20 non-community wiki answers to achieve this badge.
11 awarded

Moderation Badges

First flagged post
108 awarded
First rollback
25 awarded
First down vote
145 awarded
Completed at least one review task. This badge is awarded once per review type
239 awarded
Deleted own post with score of 3 or higher
8 awarded
First edit
508 awarded
Edited first post that was inactive for 6 months
34 awarded
First retag
46 awarded
Deleted own post with score of -3 or lower
21 awarded
Approved or rejected 100 suggested edits
Used 30 votes in a day
17 awarded
First up vote
797 awarded
First approved tag synonym
6 awarded
First tag wiki edit
14 awarded
Used the maximum 40 votes in a day
12 awarded

Other Badges

Visited every section of the FAQ (retired)
28 awarded
Shared a link to a question that was visited by 25 unique IP addresses
4 awarded
Read the entire tour page
375 awarded